Streaked Bulbul Ixos malaccensis


Justification of Red List Category
This species is likely to be declining as a result of habitat loss across much of its range. These declines are likely to be only moderately rapid at present, as populations are known to persist in secondary and hill forests. As such, it is treated as Near Threatened.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as fairly common to common (del Hoyo et al. 2005).

Trend justification
Although this species is able to persist in secondary habitats, as well as hill forests, declines are still suspected to be occurring as a result of the wholesale clearance of forest habitats in many areas.

Distribution and population

Ixos malaccensis occurs in the Sundaic lowlands, from south Tenasserim, Myanmar, peninsular Thailand, Singapore (vagrant), Sabah, Sarawak and peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan and Sumatra, Indonesia, and Brunei. It remains fairly common in suitable habitats.


This species occurs in mature broadleaved evergreen forest in lowlands and foothills, occasionally up to 1,200 m, but generally lower. It is also found in tall secondary forest, forest edge and peatswamp forest.


Rates of forest loss in the Sundaic lowlands have been extremely rapid, owing partly to the escalation of illegal logging and land conversion, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas. Forest fires have also had a damaging effect (particularly in 1997-1998). The magnitude of these threats may be allayed by this species's tolerance of hill and secondary forest.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct repeated surveys within the range to assess population trends and rates of habitat loss. Conduct ecological studies to improve understanding of its precise habitat requirements, tolerance of secondary habitats and response to fragmentation. Improve the management of existing protected areas within the species's range. Increase the area of suitable habitat that has protected status.


Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Khwaja, N.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Ixos malaccensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/03/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/03/2020.