EN
Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(ii) A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(ii); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(ii)
2012 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Vulnerable A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,290,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 600-1700 poor estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -

Population justification: A revised population estimate based on an appraisal of the areas where populations are currently persisting, principally large protected areas in Malaysia and the small population in Singapore, places the number in the band 1,000-2,499 individuals, considered to represent 667-1,667 mature individuals, rounded to 600-1,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Persecution for the pet trade and habitat destruction continue to threaten populations across the species's range, and these factors are suspected to be driving a rapid and on-going decline. The species has reduced in population to the point that it has now become extinct in Java and Sumatra, and is now only found in the most remote parts of Kalimantan where they are still trapped (Brickle et al. 2010, A. Miller in litt. 2016). There remains a huge demand for the species even in rural areas (A. Miller in litt. 2016). The already high price per individual appears to be continuing to increase, with an average of $483 quoted from west Borneo in 2015/16 (A. Miller in litt. 2016). Extirpation from the wild in Indonesia appears imminent.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brunei N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Brunei Belait Swamp Forest
Brunei Seria Coast
Brunei Southern Ladan Hills
Brunei Ulu Temburong
Brunei Wasan
Indonesia Betung Kerihun
Indonesia Bukit Baka-Bukit Raya
Indonesia Bukit Baling
Indonesia Cikepuh
Indonesia Danau Sentarum
Indonesia Gunung Leuser
Indonesia Gunung Singgalang
Indonesia Kayan Mentarang
Indonesia Kutai
Indonesia Muara Kendawangan
Indonesia Ujung Kulon
Indonesia Ulu Barito
Indonesia Way Kambas
Malaysia Bako-Buntal Bay
Malaysia Bau Limestone
Malaysia Belum-Temenggor
Malaysia Bintang Range
Malaysia Central Titiwangsa Range
Malaysia Crocker Range
Malaysia Danum Valley Conservation Area
Malaysia Danum-Linau
Malaysia Dulit Range
Malaysia Endau-Rompin
Malaysia Gunung Pueh
Malaysia Hulu Gombak-Sungai Lalang forest
Malaysia Kabili-Sepilok
Malaysia Kelabit Highlands
Malaysia Kinabatangan floodplain
Malaysia Kledang Range
Malaysia Klias peninsula
Malaysia Krau Wildlife Reserve
Malaysia Lambir Hills National Park
Malaysia Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary
Malaysia Loagan Bunut National Park
Malaysia Maliau Basin Conservation Area
Malaysia Mount Kinabalu
Malaysia Mulu - Buda Protected Area
Malaysia Niah National Park
Malaysia Panti forest
Malaysia South-East Pahang peat swamp forest
Malaysia South-west Johor coast
Malaysia Taman Negara National Park
Malaysia Tanjung Datu-Samunsam Protected Area
Malaysia Trus Madi Range
Malaysia Ulu Muda
Myanmar Lenya
Singapore Central Forest
Singapore Kranji-Mandai
Singapore Ubin-Khatib

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land marginal resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations marginal resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major resident
Altitude 0 - 1600 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 1800 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Pycnonotus zeylanicus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2017.