Steller's Sea-eagle Haliaeetus pelagicus


Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., ?ekercio?lu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13486.

BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened Birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

Collar, N. J. & Butchart, S. H. M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: Chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook 48(1): 7-28.

Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. 2001. Raptors of the World. Christopher Helm, London.

GRIN. 2021. Global Raptor Information Network. Species account: Steller's Sea Eagle Haliaeetus pelagicus. Available at: (Accessed: 14/07/2021).

Ishii, C., Nakayama, S. M. M., Ikenaka, Y., Nakata, H., Saito, K., Watanabe, Y., Mizukawa, H., Tanabe, S., Nomiyama, K., Hayashi, T. & Ishizuka, M. 2017. Lead exposure in raptors from Japan and source identification using Pb stable isotope ratios. Chemosphere 186: 367-373.

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. Available at: (Accessed: 09 December 2021).

Iwata, H., Watanabe, M., Kim, E. Y., Gotoh, R., Yasunaga, G., Tanabe, S., Masuda, Y. and Fujita, S. 2000. Contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons and lead in Steller’s Sea Eagle and White-tailed Sea Eagle from Hokkaido, Japan. In: Ueta, M. & McGrady, M. J. (ed.), First Symposium on Steller’s and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia, pp. 91-106.

Kim, E.-Y., Goto, R., Iwata, H., Masuda, Y., Tanabe, S. & Fujita, S. 1999. Preliminary survey of lead poisoning of Steller's Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus) and White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Hokkaido, Japan. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18(3): 448-451.

Masterov, V. B. & Romanov, M. S. 2014. The Steller’s sea eagle Haliaeetus pelagicus: ecology, evolution, conservation. KMK Scientific Press Ltd., Moscow.

Masterov, V. B., Soloviev, M. U. & Zykov, V. B. 2000. Numbers and current status of the population of Steller’s Sea Eagle on Sakhalin Island. In: Ueta, M. & McGrady, M. J. (ed.), First Symposium on Steller’s and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia, pp. 45-57.

Potapov, E. R., Utekhina, I. G. and McGrady, M. J. 2018. Long-term Monitoring of the Steller’s Sea Eagles at the Northern Sea of Okhotsk: What Did We Learn? Raptors Conservation Suppl.1: 24.

Potapov, E., Utekhina, I. & McGrady, M. J. 2000. Steller’s Sea Eagle in Magadan District and in the North of Khabarovsk District. In: Ueta, M. & McGrady, M. J. (ed.), First Symposium on Steller’s and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia, pp. 29-44.

Potapov, E., Utekhina, I., McGrady, M. and David, R. 2012. Source-sink populations of the Steller's Sea-Eagles (Haliaetus pelagicus) in the northern part of the sea of Okhotsk: ecological traps and their conservation implications. Ornis Mongolica 1: 20-25.

Potapov, E.; Utekhina, I.; McGrady, M.; Rimlinger, D. 2010. Low breeding success of Steller's Sea Eagles in Magadan District (Russia) in 2009: start of a decline? Raptors Conservation 18: 163-165.

Romanov, M. S. & Masterov, V. B. 2020. Low breeding performance of the Steller’s sea eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus) causes the populations to decline. Ecological Modelling 420: 108877.

Ueta, M. & Masterov, V. 2000. Estimation by a computer simulation of population trend of Steller’s Sea Eagles. In: Ueta, M. & McGrady, M. J. (ed.), First Symposium on Steller’s and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia.

Ueta, M.; McGrady, M. J.; Nakagawa, H.; Sato, F.; Masterov, V. B. 2003. Seasonal change in habitat use in Steller's sea eagles. Oryx 37: 110-124.

Further resources

Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Haliaeetus pelagicus. Downloaded from on 03/12/2023.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 03/12/2023.