VU
Steller's Sea-eagle Haliaeetus pelagicus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2013 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2012 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2008 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 7757 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,940,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,770,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3600-3800 medium estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 17.2 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.4,600-5,100 individuals, including c.1,830-1,900 breeding pairs (M. McGrady et al. in litt. 2012), assumed to be equivalent to c.3,600-3,800 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species is suspected to be in moderate decline, owing to displacement following habitat conversion in its breeding grounds, and from mortality caused by lead poisoning in inland Japan.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant
USA V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
China (mainland) Laotieshan
China (mainland) Tumen River at Jingxin-Fangchuan
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
Japan Akan, Kussharo
Japan Kiritappu marsh, Biwase bay
Japan Lake Akkeshi, Bekanbeushi marsh
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou
Japan Shiretoko, Mount Syari-dake
Japan Yakumo
North Korea Kumya Bay
North Korea Taedong River estuary
Russia (Asian) Aldoma bay
Russia (Asian) Amur river mouth
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay
Russia (Asian) Avachinskaya Bay and Starichkov Island
Russia (Asian) Babushkina and Kekurnyy Gulfs
Russia (Asian) Bol'shaya River Estuary
Russia (Asian) Chelomdzha valley and Kava-Chelomdzha interfluve
Russia (Asian) Dal'dzi lake
Russia (Asian) Inya valley
Russia (Asian) Karaginskiy Island
Russia (Asian) Kharchinskoye lake
Russia (Asian) Kievka and Chernaya river basins
Russia (Asian) Konstantin and Tugur bays
Russia (Asian) Kronotskiy Gulf
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir)
Russia (Asian) Kuril'skoye lake
Russia (Asian) Lesser Kuril Ridge and Kunashir Island
Russia (Asian) Lopatka Peninsula and First Kuril Strait
Russia (Asian) Lower Kamchatka river
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river
Russia (Asian) Makovetskoye lake
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay
Russia (Asian) Malamvayam lagoon
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
Russia (Asian) Mukhtel' lake
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Russia (Asian) Nikolaya bay
Russia (Asian) Odyan bay
Russia (Asian) Perevolochny bay
Russia (Asian) Schast'ya Gulf
Russia (Asian) Shantarskiye Islands
Russia (Asian) Stolbovoy island
Russia (Asian) Talan Island
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays
Russia (Asian) Tyuleniy Island
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake
Russia (Asian) Utashud Island
Russia (Asian) Vakhil' river mouth
Russia (Asian) Zhupanovskiy lagoon
South Korea Hwajinpo-ho lake
South Korea Songji-ho lake

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Haliaeetus pelagicus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/04/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/04/2019.