VU
Steller's Sea-eagle Haliaeetus pelagicus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2013 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2012 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2008 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 7757 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,940,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,770,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3600-3800 medium estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 17.2 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.4,600-5,100 individuals, including c.1,830-1,900 breeding pairs (M. McGrady et al. in litt. 2012), assumed to be equivalent to c.3,600-3,800 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species is suspected to be in moderate decline, owing to displacement following habitat conversion in its breeding grounds, and from mortality caused by lead poisoning in inland Japan.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant
USA V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tumen River at Jingxin-Fangchuan
China (mainland) Laotieshan
Japan Shiretoko, Mount Syari-dake
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou
Japan Kiritappu marsh, Biwase bay
Japan Lake Akkeshi, Bekanbeushi marsh
Japan Yakumo
North Korea Taedong River estuary
North Korea Kumya Bay
Russia (Asian) Chelomdzha valley and Kava-Chelomdzha interfluve
Russia (Asian) Talan Island
Russia (Asian) Kievka and Chernaya river basins
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays
Russia (Asian) Shantarskiye Islands
Russia (Asian) Konstantin and Tugur bays
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir)
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay
Russia (Asian) Inya valley
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay
Russia (Asian) Babushkina bay
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river
Russia (Asian) Lesser Kuril Ridge and Kunashir Island
Russia (Asian) Tyuleniy Island
Russia (Asian) Dal'dzi lake
Russia (Asian) Mukhtel' lake
Russia (Asian) Nikolaya bay
Russia (Asian) Schast'ya Gulf
Russia (Asian) Lopatka peninsula
Russia (Asian) Kuril'skoye lake
Russia (Asian) Utashud Island
Russia (Asian) Makovetskoye lake
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Russia (Asian) Bol'shaya River Estuary
Russia (Asian) Starichkov island
Russia (Asian) Avacha bay (Khlamovitskiy Wildlife Reserve)
Russia (Asian) Zhupanovskiy lagoon
Russia (Asian) Kronotskiy Gulf
Russia (Asian) Aldoma bay
Russia (Asian) Kharchinskoye lake
Russia (Asian) Lower Kamchatka river
Russia (Asian) Stolbovoy island
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
Russia (Asian) Malamvayam lagoon
Russia (Asian) Karaginskiy Island
South Korea Songji-ho lake
South Korea Hwajinpo-ho lake
Russia (Asian) Vakhil' river mouth
Russia (Asian) Amur river mouth
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
Russia (Asian) Kekurny bay
Russia (Asian) Perevolochny bay
Russia (Asian) Odyan bay
Japan Akan, Kussharo
Russia (Asian) Avachinskaya Bay and Starichkov Island
Russia (Asian) Lopatka Peninsula and First Kuril Strait
Russia (Asian) Babushkina and Kekurnyy Gulfs

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Haliaeetus pelagicus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/09/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/09/2020.