Steller's Eider Polysticta stelleri


Aarvak, T.; Øien I.J.; Krasnov Y.V.; Gavrilo M.V.; Shavykin, A. A. 2012. The European wintering population of Steller’s Eider Polysticta stelleri reassessed. Bird Conservation International 22.

Alaska SeaLife Center. 2004. Experts embark on challenging multi-year program to breed Steller's eiders in captivity for first time in Alaska.

Andresen, C.G.; Lougheed, V.L. 2015. Disappearing Arctic tundra ponds: Fine-scale analysis of surface hydrology in drained thaw lake basins over a 65-year period (1948-2013). Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences 120.

Anon. 2001. Critical habitat designated for Spectacled and Steller's Eiders in Alaska. WWF Arctic Bulletin: 20-21.

Belobrov, R. V.; Artukhin, Y. B. 2008. Alarming information about wintering waterfowl on the Commander Islands. Casarca 11(2): 139-146.

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Dagys, M., Žydelis, R. 2002. Bird bycatch in fishing nets in Lithuanian coastal waters in wintering season 2001-2002. Acta Zoologica Lituanica 12 (3): 276-282.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Fox, A. D., Jónsson, J. E., Aarvak, T., Bregnballe, T., Christensen, T. K., Clausen, K. K., Clausen, P., Dalby, L., Holm, T.E., Pavon-Jordan, D., Laursen, K., Lehikoinen, A., Lorentsen, S., Moller, A.P., Nordstrom, M., Ost, M., Soderquist, P., Therkildsen, O.R. 2015. Current and Potential Threats to Nordic Duck Populations — A Horizon Scanning Exercise. Annales Zoologici Fennici 52(4): 193-220.

Frederickson, L..H. 2001. Steller’s Eider (Polysticta stelleri). In: A. Poole and F. Gill (eds), The Birds of North America, pp. 24. The Birds of North America, Inc, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Iles, D. T., Rockwell, R. F., Matulonis, P., Robertson, G. J., Abraham, K. E., Davies, J. C & Koons, D. N. 2013. : Predators, alternative prey and climate influence annual breeding success of a long-lived sea duck. Journal of Animal Ecology 82: 683-693.

Johnsgard, P.A. 1978. Ducks, geese and swans of the World. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London.

Kear, J. 2005. Ducks, geese and swans volume 2: species accounts (Cairina to Mergus). Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Krasnov, Y.V.; Ström, H.; Gavrilo, M.V.; Shavykin, A. A. 2004. Seabirds wintering in polynyas along Terskiy coast of the White Sea and along East Murman coast. Ornitologia Neotropical 31: 51-57.

Larned, W. W. 2012. Steller’s eider spring migration surveys, Southwest Alaska, 2011. United States Fish and Wildlife Service Report, Anchorage, Alaska.

Laubhan, M.K. and Metzner, K.A. 1999. Distribution and diurnal behavior of Steller's eiders wintering on the Alaska Peninsula. Condor 101(3): 694-698.

Madge, S.; Burn, H. 1988. Wildfowl. Christopher Helm, London.

Morse, S. 2009. A challenging future for the Steller's Eider. Endangered Species Bulletin 34(3): 22-23.

Petersen, M. R. 1981. Populations, feeding ecology and molt of Steller's Eider. Condor 83: 256-262.

Pihl, S. 1997. Overview of the hunting legislation, legal and illegal hunting of the Steller's Eider. Proceedings from Steller's Eider workshop, pp. 40-41. Wetlands Int.

Quakenbush, L., Suydam, R., Obritschkewitsch, T. & Deering, M. 2004. : Breeding biology of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) near Barrow, Alaska, 1991–99. . Arctic 57: 166-182.

Safine, D. E. 2011. Breeding ecology of Steller’s and spectacled eiders nesting near Barrow, Alaska, 2008-2010. United States Fish and Wildlife Service Technical Report, Fairbanks, Alaska.

Skov, H.; Heinänen, S.; Žydelis, R.; Bellebaum, J.; Bzoma, S.; Dagys, M.; Durinck, J.; Garthe, S.; Grishanov, G.; Hario, M.; Kieckbusch, J. K.; Kube, J.; Kuresoo, A.; Larsson, K.; Luigujoe, L.; Meissner, W.; Nehls, H. W.; Nilsson, L.; Petersen, I. K.; Roos, M. M.; Pihl, S.; Sonntag, N.; Stock, A.; Stipniece, A. 2011. Waterbird Populations and Pressures in the Baltic Sea. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen.

Zydelis, R.; Lorentsen, S-H.; Fox, A.D.; Kuresoo, A.; Krasnov, Y.; Goryaev, Y.; Bustnes, J.O.; Hario, M.; Nilsson, L.; Stipniece, A. 2006. Recent changes in the status of Steller's Eider Polysticta stelleri wintering in Europe: a decline or redistribution? Bird Conservation International 16(3): 217-236.

Žydelis, R.; Small, C.; French, G. 2013. The incidental catch of seabirds in gillnet fisheries: A global review. Biological Conservation 162: 76-88.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Duck Specialist Group

IUCN SSC Threatened Waterfowl Specialist Group

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

European Species Action Plan

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Recovery Plan

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Polysticta stelleri. Downloaded from on 02/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 02/12/2022.