VU
Steller's Eider Polysticta stelleri



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2016 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2013 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2012 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2010 Vulnerable A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2008 Vulnerable A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2006 Vulnerable
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 9,240,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 26,900,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4 - - -

Population justification: Various population estimates include: c.10,000-15,000 wintering individuals in north Norway and the south-east Baltic (based on a count of 4,297 off Kola Peninsula in April 2003 [Krasnov et al. 2004], 2,300 in the whole Baltic in 2009 (Skov et al., 2011) and c.2,700 wintering off Norway in the same year (Aarvak et al. 2012) Ce.100,000-110,000 wintering individuals were counted in the north Pacific; counts in North America declined from 137,900 in 1992 to 77,300 in 2003, forming the basis of the 2003 North American population estimate of 90,000-95,000 individuals (K. Laing in litt. 2005 to Wetlands International 2006). However, the population has since declined to 74,400 individuals in 2011 (Larned 2012). Ce.20,000 individuals migrate through the Kamchatka Peninsula in spring (Gerasimov and Gerasimov 2003), c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.23,000 wintering individuals were recorded in Russia in March 2009 (Aarvak et al. 2012). The minimum European population in winter is currently estimated at 30,800-41,200 individuals, which equates to 20,500-27,500 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). There is also a marginal breeding population in Europe estimated at 5-50 pairs, which equates to 10-100 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Based on the current European wintering population estimate of 30,800-41,200 individuals (BirdLife International 2015) and an estimate of 100,000-110,000 individuals wintering in the north Pacific, the total population is estimated at c.130,000-150,000 individuals.

Trend justification: Based on population estimates of birds staging in southwest Alaska, the Alaskan population declined by 2.3% per year since 1992 (or 46% over 20 years) during 1992-2011 (Larned 2012). Declines in Europe have been even steeper, with an estimated decline of 66.4% between Baltic-wide surveys in 1993 and 2009 (Skov et al. 2011). It is unclear, however, whether these declines were genuine, or reflect a redistribution to other wintering areas, including Russia (Aarvak et al. 2012). Conservatively assuming the Asian population was stable over this time, and taking into account the smaller relative size of the European population, a precautionary decline rate of 30-49 % over 12 years is assumed.  


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Belgium V Extant
China (mainland) V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France V Extant
Germany V Extant
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Iceland V Extant
Japan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Lithuania Marine waters along the continental part of Lithuania
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Tagamõisa peninsula
Finland Föglö southern archipelago
Finland Lågskär-Nyhamn
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Russia (European) Gavrilovski archipelago
Russia (European) Bezymyannaya and Gribovaya Bays and adjoining waters
Russia (European) Torna-Shoina watershed
Russia (European) Solovetski Archipelago and Zjizjginski island
Norway Varangerfjord
Latvia Seaway to the border with Lithuania
Russia (European) Seskar island
Russia (Asian) Karaginskiy Island
Russia (Asian) Korfa Gulf (northern part)
Russia (Asian) Lena delta
Russia (Asian) Kolyma delta
Russia (Asian) Terpyey-Tumus
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir)
Russia (Asian) First Kuril strait
Russia (Asian) Indigirka delta
Russia (Asian) Yana delta
Russia (Asian) Vankarem lowlands and Kolyuchin bay
Russia (Asian) Commander Islands
Estonia Koorunõmme
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Russia (European) Terski coast
USA Kvichak Bay
USA Cape Senyavin
USA Baby Islands and Akutan Pass
USA Kuskokwim Bay, marine
USA Clam Gulch
USA Cinder River-Hook Lagoon
USA Port Heiden
USA Port Moller-Herendeen Bay
USA Nelson Lagoon-Mud Bay
USA Izembek-Moffet-Kinzarof Lagoons
USA Chiniak Bay
USA Akutan Harbor
USA Avatanak Strait Islands
USA Central Yukon - Kuskokwim
Norway Slettnes
Norway Båtsfjord
Norway Varangerfjord (including Hornøya and Reinøya)
Russia (Asian) Kytalyk
USA Chignik Bay
USA Wide Bay
Norway Berlevåg
USA Bechevin Bay
USA Carter Bay
USA Egegik Bay
USA Nushagak Bay
USA Nushagak Bay, marine
USA Seal Islands
Russia (Asian) Geka bay
Russia (Asian) Nerpich'ye Lake and Kamchatka River delta
Russia (Asian) Kronotskiy Gulf
Russia (Asian) Avachinskaya Bay and Starichkov Island
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
Russia (Asian) Lopatka Peninsula and First Kuril Strait

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Vulpes lagopus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Garbage & solid waste Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Polysticta stelleri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/08/2020.