LC
Squacco Heron Ardeola ralloides



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 287 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 54,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 37,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.7 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at 370,000-780,000 (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 15,000-25,900 pairs, which equates to 30,000-51,700 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is unclear, some populations are thought to be stable and others may be increasing or decreasing (Wetlands International 2015). The European population trend is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus V Extant
Belgium V Extant
Benin N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant Yes
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya V Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mauritius V Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Netherlands V Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sudan N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Cyprus Pafos Plain
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hanoutaris Cliffs
Cyprus Phasouri reedbeds
Cyprus Akrotiri salt-lake including Bishop's Pool
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Serbia Obedska bara
Serbia Labudovo okno
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bardaca
Bosnia and Herzegovina Hutovo blato
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Lake Boz-Koba
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Lake Ych-chala (Novogolovka-chala)
Azerbaijan Varvara Reservoir
Cyprus Klidhes Islands
Portugal Paul do Boquilobo
Portugal Murta dam
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake
Bulgaria Vardim Island
Bulgaria Belene Islands Complex
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Comana
Romania Lake Strachina
Romania Strejesti reservoir
Romania Ciocăneşti - Dunăre
Romania Mehedinti fish-ponds-Gârla Mare
Turkey Meriç Delta
Turkey Uluabat Lake
Turkey Manyas Lake (Kuş Lake)
Turkey Marmara Lake
Turkey Işıklı Lake
Turkey Akşehir and Eber Lakes
Turkey Mogan lake
Turkey Sultan Marsh
Turkey Yeşilırmak Delta
Turkey Ereğli Plain
Turkey Hotamış Marshes
Turkey Göksu Delta
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece River Axios
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Psili Ammos lagoon, Samos
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Lakes Trichonis and Lysimachia
Hungary Flood plain of Tiszaalpár
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Kolon Lake
Hungary Kisköre reservoir
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Sárvíz Valley
Hungary Kesznyéten
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Marmolejo reservoir-La Ropera
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain River Ebro ox-bow lakes
Spain Medas islands
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain El Hondo wetland
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes
Spain Rivers Cinca and Alcanadre riverine forest
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Ingul river valley
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Brenne centrale
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Vallée de la Garonne : Palayre et environs
France Camargue
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France La Dombes
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Domaine d'Orx
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Basse vallée du Var
Italy Pantani di Vendicari e di Capo Passero
Italy Lakes Montepulciano and Chiusi
Italy Fucecchio marsh
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Valli di Argenta
Italy Po Delta
Italy Caorle lagoon
Italy Boscone island
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Italy Lomellina and Heronries of Pavia province
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Lake Trasimeno
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Oristano wetlands
Italy Cagliari wetlands
Italy Torrile LIPU reserve
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Italy Vercelli rice-fields
Italy River Po from Dora Baltea mouth to Scrivia mouth
Italy Codigoro heronry
Italy Ponte Buriano-Lago della Penna
Italy Ticino river
Italy Novara heronries
Albania Lake Butrinti
Romania Bistreţ
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Serbia Becej fish-pond
Serbia Jegricka
Serbia Koviljski rit
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Georgia Kolkheti
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Croatia Cetina River
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia Kopacki Rit Special Zoological Reserve
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Danube
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Drava
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Croatia Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds
Croatia Grudnjak fish-ponds
Botswana Okavango Delta
Cameroon Logone flood-plain
Egypt Lake Manzala
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo
South Sudan Sudd (Bahr-el-Jebel system)
Chad Lake Chad
Chad Lake Fitri
South Africa Nyl River Floodplain
Zambia Kafue Flats
Zambia Bangweulu Swamps
Turkey Sakarya Delta
Turkey Muş Plain
Turkey Adıyaman - Gölbaşı Lakes
Israel Carmel coast
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Svishtov-Belene Lowland
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Armenia Metsamor
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Etang de Biguglia
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etang du Bagnas
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Iles d'Hyères
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
Bulgaria Yatata
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gori Gol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nowruzlu and Ghazanlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Abbas-abad dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hashelan marsh and Doh Tappeh plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karkheh river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamidieh (Omidiyeh) plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Barr al Hikman
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Wadi Rabigh springs
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Ibisha Island
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Pozharevo Island
Bulgaria Ropotamo Complex
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Ukraine Gerojsk Lakes
Ukraine Zakaznyk Domuzaly
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Italy Adda Sud Park heronries
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy River Sesia heronries
Russia (European) Kissyk area
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya
Russia (European) Southern Agrakhan lake
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Russia (European) Varnavinsko-Kryukovskaya irrigation system
Russia (European) Shapsugsko-Takhtamutaiskaya rice-irrigation system
Turkey Köyceğiz Lake
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Valli Bolognesi
Italy Iolanda di Savoia wetlands
Italy Pools of Florence plain
Italy Biviere and Plain of Gela
Turkey İron Marshes
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Russia (European) Chechen' Island and east seaside of Agrakhan peninsula
Romania Allah Bair - Capidava
Romania Balta Vederoasa
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare
Romania Lake Dunăreni
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Romania Vedea - Dunăre
Romania Dăbuleni - Grinduri
Romania Dunăre - Olteniţa
Romania Olteniţa - Ulmeni
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Hungary Péteri Lake
Slovenia Škocjan Bay
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Ethiopia Lake Abe wetland system
Serbia Gornje Potamisje
Italy Punta Alberete, Canna Valley, San Vitale Pinewood, and Pialassa of Baiona
Croatia Grudnjak and Nasice Carp Fishponds
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalochori lagoon
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Lake Amvrakia
Mauritania Lac de Mâl
Mauritania Lac d'Aleg
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Mauritania Chott Boul
Serbia Becej fishpond
Guinea-Bissau Lagoas de Cufada
Senegal Djoudj wetlands
Senegal Ndiaël basin (including the Trois Marigots)
Senegal Lac de Guiers
Senegal Niayes (from Dakar to St Louis)
Mauritania Diawling National Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Other household goods - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Ardeola ralloides. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2021.