LC
Spur-winged Lapwing Vanellus spinosus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 24,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 21,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at 130,000-800,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 1,100-1,600 pairs, which equates to 2,100-3,200 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be increasing as ongoing habitat degradation is creating new areas of suitable habitat (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The European population is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola V Extant
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Benin N Extant
Bulgaria V Extant
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia V Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czech Republic V Extant
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Gabon V Extant
Gambia N Extant
Germany V Extant
Ghana N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hungary V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy V Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Liberia V Extant
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant
Malta V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Montenegro V Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
Oman N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant
Qatar V Extant
Romania V Extant
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Slovakia V Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Togo N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine V Extant
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Famagusta Lakes
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Cyprus Mia Milia Sewage Treatment Plant
Cyprus Oroklini Lake
Cyprus Paralimni Lake
Egypt Lake Manzala
Egypt Lake Qarun Protected Area
Egypt Wadi El Natrun
Greece Evros delta
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Kenya Lake Turkana
Turkey Acıgöl Lake
Turkey Bafa Lake
Turkey Burdur Lake
Turkey Ceyhan Delta
Turkey Ereğli Plain
Turkey Eşmekaya Marshes
Turkey Gediz Delta
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Hotamış Marshes
Turkey Karataş Lake
Turkey Lesser Menderes Delta
Turkey Marmara Lake
Turkey Seyfe Lake
Turkey Seyhan Delta
Turkey Sultan Marsh

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Vanellus spinosus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2017.