VU
Sprague's Pipit Anthus spragueii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2bce+3bce+4bce

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable A2bce+3bce+4bce
2016 Vulnerable A2bce+3bce+4bce
2012 Vulnerable A2bce+3bce+4bce
2008 Vulnerable A2b,c,e; A3b,c,e; A4b,c,e
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 25.5 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,280,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 6,840,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 500000-999999 medium estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.7 - - -

Population justification: Rosenberg et al. (2016) estimate the U.S./Canadian population at 1,200,000 individuals, and as the species only breeds in these two countries this figure is assumed to encompass the global population. This is roughly equivalent to 800,000 mature individuals, placed here in the range of 500,000-999,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: This species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease. Partners in Flight give this species a 'half-life' of 27 years (Rosenberg et al. 2016), which equates to a decline of 20.6% over a decade. Data from North American Breeding Bird Survey over the last 47 years gives a 81.4% decline over 47 years, equating to a 30.0% decline per decade (Sauer et al. 2014). More recent trend data from 2003-2013 using Breeding Bird Survey data suggest an annual decline of 5.35% (8.81%, 2.33%), which would give a decline of 42.9% over a decade. Therefore, the decline is placed in the range of 30-49%.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Canada N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Mexico Corredor de Barrancas de la Sierra Madre Occidental
Mexico Cuitzeo
Mexico El Manantial
Mexico Humedales del Sur de Tamaulipas y Norte Veracruz
Mexico Janos-Nuevo Casas Grandes
Mexico Pradera de Tokio
USA Katy Prairie Conservancy
USA Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge
USA North Valley Grasslands
USA Westby Prairie-Wetland Complex

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable passage
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable passage
Grassland Temperate major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Altitude 0 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Bromus inermis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Elymus repens Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Poa pratensis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Molothrus ater Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Supression in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Anthus spragueii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/07/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/07/2019.