LC
Spotted Towhee Pipilo maculatus



Justification

Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
The global population is inferred to number 40 million mature individuals (Partners in Flight 2019).

Trend justification
The species has stable population trends (Pardieck et al. 2018; Partners in Flight 2019).

Distribution and population

Pipilo maculatus is distributed throughout western U.S.A. and extreme southwestern Canada, as well as patchily in Mexico and Guatemala (del Hoyo et al. 2011). Subspecies consobrinus, endemic to Guadalupe Island (Mexico), is considered extinct, having not been recorded since the late 1800s (Kaeding 1905).

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Hermes, C.

Contributors
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Hardenbol, A., Khwaja, N. & Miller, E.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Pipilo maculatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/07/2022.