Spotted Owl Strix occidentalis


AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Blakesley, J. A.; Anderson, D. R.; Noon, B. R. 2006. Breeding dispersal in the California Spotted Owl. Condor 108: 71-81.

Butcher, G. S.; Niven, D. K. 2007. Combining data from the Christmas bird count and the breeding bird survey to determine the continental status and trends of North American birds.

Collar, N.J. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook 48(1): 7-28.

del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N.J. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Dickerman, R. W. 1997. Geographic variation in southwestern U.S. and Mexican Spotted Owls, with the description of a new subspecies. In: Dickerman, R.W. (ed.), The era of Allan R. Phillips: a festschrift, pp. 45-48. Horizon Communications, Albuquerque, U.S.A.

Dugger, K. M.; Forsman, E. D.; Franklin, A. B.; Davis, R. J.; White, G. C.; Schwartz, C. J.; Burnham, K. P.; Nichols, J. D.; Hines, J. E.; Yackulic, C. B.; Doherty, P. F. Jnr.; Bailey, L.; Clark, D. A.; Ackers, S. H.; Andrews, L. S.; Augustine, B.; Biswell, B. L.; Blakesley, J.; Carlson, P. C.; Clement, M. J.; Diller, L. V.; Glenn, E. M.; Green, A.; Gremel, S. A.; Herter, D. R.; Higley, J. M.; Hobson, J.; Horn, R. B.; Huyvaert, K. P.; McCafferty, C.; McDonald, T.; McDonnell, K.; Olson, G. S.; Reid, J. A.; Rockweit, J.; Ruiz, V.; Saenz, J.; Sovern, S. G. 2016. The effects of habitat, climate, and Barred Owls on long-term demography of Northern Spotted Owls. Condor 118: 57-116.

Forsman, E. D.; Anthony, R. G.; Reid, J. A.; Loschl, P. J.; Sovern, S. G.; Taylor, M.; Biswell, B. L.; Ellingson, A.; Meslow, E. C.; Miller, G. S.; Swindle, K. A.; Thrailkill, J. A.; Wagner, F. F.; Seaman, D. E. 2002. Natal and breeding dispersal of Northern Spotted Owls. Wildlife Monographs 149: 1-35.

Ganey, J. L.; Apprill, D. L.; Rawlinson, T. A.; Kyle, S. C.; Jonnes, R. S.; Ward, J. P. Jnr. 2014a. Breeding dispersal of Mexican Spotted Owls in the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico. Wilson J. Ornithol. 126(3): 516-524.

Ganey, J. L.; Kyle, S. C.; Rawlinson, T. A.; Apprill, D. L.; Ward, J. P. Jnr. 2014b. Relative abundance of small mammals in nest core areas and burned wintering areas of Mexican Spotted Owls in the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico. Wilson J. Ornithol. 126(1): 47-52.

Ganey, J. L.; White, G. C.; Ward, J. P. Jnr.; Kyle, S. C.; Apprill, D. L.; Rawlinson, T. A.; Jonnes, R. S. 2014c. Demography of Mexican spotted owls in the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico. J. Wildlife Management 78(1): 42-49.

Glenn, E. M.; Anthony, R. G.; Forsman, E. D. 2010. Population trends in northern spotted owls: Associations with climate in the Pacific Northwest. Biol. Conserv. 143: 2543-2552.

Gutiérrez, R. J.; Franklin, A. B.; Lahaye, W. S. 1995. Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 179, pp. 1-28. The Academy of Natural Sciences, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC.

Hull, J. M.; Keane, J. J.; Tell, L.; Ernest, H. B. 2010. West Nile Virus antibody surveillance in three Sierra Nevada raptors of conservation concern. Condor 112(1): 168-172.

Ishak, H. D.; Dumbacher, J. P.; Anderson, N. L.; Keane, J. J.; Valkiunas, G.; Haig, S. M.; Tell, L. A.; Sehgal, R. N. M. 2008. Blood parasites in owls with conservation implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis). PLoS ONE 3(5): e2304.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1988. North American owls: biology and natural history. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. and London.

Jones, G. M.; Gutiérrez, R. J.; Tempel, D. J.; Whitmore, S. A.; Berigan, W. J.; Peery, M. Z. 2016. Megafires: an emerging threat to old-forest species. Front. Ecol. Environ. 14(6): 300-306.

Kelly, S. G.; Forsman, E.D. 2004. Recent records of hybridization between Barred Owls (Strix varia) and Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina). The Auk 121: 806-810.

Lammertink, J. M.; Rojas-Tomé, J. A.; Casillas-Orona, F. M.; Otto, R. L. 1996. Status and conservation of old-growth forests and endemic birds in the pine-oak zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Institute for Systematics and Population Biology, Amsterdam.

Lee, D. E.; Bond, M. L.; Siegel, R. B. 2012. Dynamics of breeding-season site occupancy of the California Spotted Owl in burned forests. Condor 114(4): 792-802.

Noon, B. R.; Blakesley, J. A. 2006. Conservation of the Northern Spotted Owl under the Northwest Forest Plan. Conservation Biology 20: 288-296.

Noon, B. R.; McKelvey, K. S. 1996. Management of the Spotted Owl: A case history in conservation biology. Ann. Rev. Ecol. and Syst. 27, pp. 135-162.

Oregon Fish and Wildlife Service; U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2013. Experimental removal of Barred Owls to benefit threatened Northern Spotted Owls. Oregon Fish and Wildlife Service; U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Peery, M. Z.; Gutiérrez, R. J.; Kirby, R.; LeDee, O. E.; LaHaye, W. 2011. Climate change and spotted owls: potentially contrasting responses in the Southwestern United States. Global Change Biology 18(3): 865-880.

Roberts, S. L.; van Wagtendonk, J. W.; Miles, A. K.; Kelt, D. A. 2011. Effects of fire on spotted owl site occupancy in a late-successional forest. Biol. Conserv. 144: 610-619.

Schilling, J. W.; Dugger, K. M.; Anthony, R. G. 2013. Survival and home-range size of Northern Spotted Owls in southwestern Oregon. J. Raptor Research 47: 1-14.

Sibley, C.G. and Monroe, B.L. 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Society for Conservation Biology. 2012. Final Critical Habitat for Northern Spotted Owl Announced. Available at: https://conbio.org/policy/final-critical-habitat-for-northern-spotted-owl-announced.

Tempel, D. J.; Gutiérrez, R. J.; Whitmore, S. A.; Reetz, M. J.; Stoelting, R. E.; Berigan, W. J.; Seamans, M. E.; Peery, M. Z. 2014a. Effects of forest management on California Spotted Owls: implications for reducing wildfire risk in fire-prone forests. Ecological Applications 24(8): 2089-2106.

Tempel, D. J.; Peery, M. Z.; Gutiérrez, R. J. 2014b. Using integrated population models to improve conservation monitoring: California spotted owls as a case study. Ecological Modelling 289: 86-95.

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2011. Revised Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon, USA.

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2012. Final Recovery Plan for the Mexican Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis lucida), First Revision. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alberquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A.

Willey, D. W.; van Riper III, C. 2007. Home range characteristics of Mexican Spotted Owls in the canyonlands of Utah. Journal of Raptor Research 41(1): 10-15.

Willey, D. W.; van Riper III, C. 2014. Home range characteristics of Mexican Spotted Owls in the Rincon Mountains, Arizona. Wilson J. Ornithol. 126(1): 53-59.

Further resources

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos, videos and sounds of this species in the Internet Bird Collection.

Media resources
Arkive species - Spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) 0

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Strix occidentalis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/09/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/09/2018.