VU
Spotted Imperial-pigeon Ducula carola



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2cd+3cd+4cd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Vulnerable A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass 289 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 603,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 poor estimated 1999
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.6 - - -

Population justification: The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification: Extensive and on-going forest loss is suspected to be driving a rapid and continuing population reduction in this species.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Philippines N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Philippines Kalbario-Patapat National Park
Philippines Mount Pulag National Park
Philippines Zambales mountains
Philippines North Eastern Cagayan Protected Landscape and Seascape
Philippines Peñablanca Protected Landscape and Seascape
Philippines Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park
Philippines Aurora Memorial National Park
Philippines Angat watershed
Philippines Quezon National Park
Philippines Mount Calavite
Philippines Mount Halcon
Philippines Lake Naujan
Philippines Mount Siburan
Philippines Mount Hitding
Philippines Mount Guiting-guiting Natural Park
Philippines Mount Kanla-on Natural Park
Philippines Cuernos de Negros
Philippines Mount Bandila-an
Philippines Agusan marsh
Philippines Bislig
Philippines Mount Agtuuganon and Mount Pasian
Philippines Mount Kampalili-Puting Bato
Philippines Mount Balatukan
Philippines Mount Kitanglad
Philippines Lake Lanao
Philippines Mount Apo
Philippines Mount Matutum
Philippines Mount Busa-Kiamba
Philippines Mount Dapiak-Mount Paraya
Philippines Pasonanca watershed
Philippines Mounts Irid-Angilo and Binuang
Philippines Mount Dingalan
Philippines Malpalon
Philippines Mount Malindang

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 0 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Ducula carola. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/08/2022.