EN
Spotted Ground-thrush Geokichla guttata



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Geokichla guttata (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously listed as Zoothera guttata.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- C2a(i) C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2017 Endangered C2a(i)
2016 Endangered C2a(i)
2012 Endangered C2a(i)
2008 Endangered C2a(i)
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 58 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,340,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 72,300 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000-2499 poor estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -

Population justification: The estimates provided for some known populations (guttata <300 pairs [Brown 2015]; fischeri c.200 pairs; belcheri 30-40 pairs) suggest that the world population numbers less than 2,500 mature individuals, therefore it is placed in the range bracket for 1,000-2,499 mature individuals.

Trend justification: This species's population is suspected to be declining in line with habitat loss and degradation within its range. Surveys of Kenyan coastal forest in 2003 suggest that the species may have undergone very rapid declines since the 1980s (Ndang'ang'a et al. 2008), and work looking at data between the Southern African Bird Atlas Projects suggests a possible range decline of 28% in South Africa (Cooper 2015). The likely overall rate of decline, however, has not been estimated.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Upemba National Park
Kenya Arabuko-Sokoke Forest
Kenya Diani Forest
Kenya Gede Ruins National Monument
Kenya Kaya Gandini
Kenya Kaya Waa
Kenya Mrima Hill Forest
Kenya Shimba Hills
Malawi Soche Mountain Forest Reserve
Malawi Mount Mulanje Forest Reserve
Malawi Thyolo Mountain Forest Reserve
Mozambique Maputo Special Reserve
South Sudan Imatong mountains
Tanzania Kisarawe District Coastal Forests
Tanzania Pande Game Reserve and Dondwe Coastal Forests
Tanzania Lindi District Coastal Forests
South Africa Lake St Lucia and Mkuze Swamps
South Africa Umlalazi Nature Reserve
South Africa Ngoye Forest Reserve
South Africa Entumeni Nature Reserve
South Africa Dhlinza Forest Nature Reserve
South Africa Oribi Gorge Nature Reserve
South Africa Umtamvuna Nature Reserve
South Africa Mkhambati Nature Reserve
South Africa Dwesa-Cwebe Nature Reserve
Tanzania Bagamoyo
Mozambique Mount Mabu
South Africa Oribi Gorge - Mbumbazi complex
South Africa Ethekwini north
South Africa Umdloti
South Africa Mvoti estuary complex
South Africa Ethekwini south
South Africa Vernon Crooks corridor
South Africa Ngoye coastal complex
South Africa Eston complex
South Africa Lower Mzimbvubu
South Africa Pondoland North Coast
South Africa Port St John's Forests
South Africa Mbashe River - Coffee Bay
South Africa Hluhluwe - Mkhuze lowveld

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1750 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Excess energy - Light pollution Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Geokichla guttata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2021.