Spot-winged Parrotlet Touit stictopterus


Justification of Red List Category
This species is feared to have a small population, restricted to several small subpopulations. Habitat loss is causing a slow decline in the population size, and therefore the species is listed as Near Threatened.

Population justification
The population size has not been quantified in detail across the range, but the species is described as common, but probably under-recorded (Collar et al. 2020). National estimates include 180-510 mature individuals in Peru (SERFOR 2018), though based on observational records the population may be larger (see eBird 2021). In both Ecuador and Colombia, the national populations have been placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals (Renjifo et al. 2014; Freile et al. 2019). The global population is therefore inferred at 5,180-20,508 mature individuals, rounded here to 5,000-21,000 mature individuals, though this number requires confirmation.
It is inferred that no subpopulation contains more than 1,000 mature individuals (Renjifo et al. 2014; Freile et al. 2019; see also SERFOR 2018).

Trend justification
The species is inferred to be in slow decline due to the destruction and fragmentation of its forested habitat. Tree cover has been lost at 1.5% over the last three generations (10.8 years; Bird et al. 2020) across the entire range (Global Forest Watch 2021). However, rates of habitat loss may be higher locally in Colombia, amounting to up to 10% over three generations or potentially even higher (see Renjifo et al. 2014; Negret et al. 2021).
To account for locally higher rates of habitat loss and additional impacts of forest degradation on the population size, the overall rate of population decline is tentatively placed in the band 1-19% over three generations.

Distribution and population

Touit stictopterus occurs disjunctly through Colombia (Cundinamarca, Meta, Cauca), Ecuador (Napo, Morona-Santiago, Zamora-Chinchipe) and northern Peru (Cajamarca, San Martín and Amazonas [Clements and Shany 2001; Brooks et al. 2009]). It is uncommon throughout its range (Collar et al. 2020). However, it appears to occur naturally at low density, and may sometimes be overlooked and thus more widespread than records suggest (Juniper and Parr 1998; Collar et al. 2020).


The species inhabits the upper tropical and lower subtropical zone in tall, humid montane forest (Collar et al. 2020). It is mostly found at 1,050-1,700 m, but may range from savanna-like woodland as low a 500 m to stunted ridge-top forest at up to 2,300 m. It is often seen in small flocks of 5-12 individuals, sometimes more, but occasionally in pairs (Juniper and Parr 1998; J. Hornbuckle in litt. 1999). It feeds on fruit, including Ficus spp., and reportedly raids maize crops (Juniper and Parr 1998). The species probably undertakes altitudinal migrations depending on food availability (Botero-Delgadillo and Páez 2011; Renjifo et al. 2014).


The species is threatened by the continuing loss and degradation of its forest habitat (Snyder et al. 2000; Botero-Delgadillo and Páez 2011; Renjifo et al. 2014; SERFOR 2018). Improvements to road networks lead to deforestation associated with human encroachment, agriculture and settlement of new areas. Habitat loss is occurring even within protected areas (Renjifo et al. 2014).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It has been recorded in several protected areas throughout its range.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Assess its distribution and population status through field surveys. Monitor the population trend. Monitor rates of habitat loss. Maintain and improve the integrity of protected areas in which the species occurs. Expand the proportion of the range that is receiving formal protection.


17-18 cm. Chunky, dusky green parrotlet. Overall green with dusky brown wings, whitish tips to coverts and orange tips to two outer median coverts. Female and immature have green wing-coverts with black bases. Similar spp. Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet T. huetii shows conspicuous red (and sometimes yellow) on wings. Cobalt-winged Parakeet Brotogeris cyanoptera has pointed tail and blue wings. Voice In flight, two or three rasping raah-reh notes, with lower first note. Apparently silent when perched. Hints Moves silently around canopy, and has non-undulating flight with deep, steady wingbeats.


Text account compilers
Hermes, C.

Benstead, P., Bushell, C., Hornbuckle, J., Isherwood, I., Lloyd, H., Salaman, P.G.W., Sharpe, C.J., Stuart, T. & Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Touit stictopterus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/08/2022.