NT
Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2cd
2012 Near Threatened A2cd
2008 Near Threatened A2c,d
2007 Near Threatened
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 8,850,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 10,700,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 8700-12000 medium estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.4 - - -

Population justification: S. Subramanya (in litt. 2006) has suggested that the population in South India now exceeds 5,000 birds owing to increases resulting from improved protection of the species. This would imply a total population of perhaps 7,000-10,000 individuals in South Asia, and 13,000-18,000 individuals globally, roughly equivalent to 8,700-12,000 mature individuals,

Trend justification: The species declined rapidly during the 20th century, but in recent years the population appears to have stabilised, with at least some populations apparently now increasing in response to improved protection (P. Round in litt. 2006, S. Subramanya in litt. 2006). The global population is suspected to have undergone a moderately rapid decline over the last three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bangladesh N Extinct Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
China (mainland) V Extinct Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Malaysia V Extant
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extinct Yes
Singapore V Extant Yes
South Korea V Extant
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bangladesh Sunderbans (East, South, West Wildlife Sanctuaries)
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor
Cambodia Bassac Marsh
Cambodia Basset Marsh
Cambodia Boeung Chhmar / Moat Khla
Cambodia Boeung Prek Lapouv
Cambodia Boeung Veal Samnap
Cambodia Chhnuk Tru
Cambodia Lower Stung Sen
Cambodia Preah Net Preah / Kra Lanh / Pourk
Cambodia Prek Taek Sap
Cambodia Prek Toal
Cambodia Stung / Chi Kreng / Kampong Svay
Cambodia Stung Kampong Smach
Cambodia Stung Sen / Santuk / Baray
Cambodia Veal Srongae
India Amchang Hills
India Bauwwa Beel
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park
India Big Tank (Peria Kanmai) and Sakkarakotai Kanmai
India Bordoibam-Bilmukh Bird Sanctuary
India Bordoloni - Sampora
India Chitragudi and Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary
India Corbett Tiger Reserve
India Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary and Godavari estuary
India D'Ering Memorial Wildlife Sanctuary
India Deepor Beel Bird Sanctuary
India Dibang Reserve Forest and adjacent areas
India Dibru - Saikhowa Complex
India Dihaila Jheel and other wetlands
India Dudhwa National Park
India Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary
India Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park
India Innerline, Katakal and Barak Reserve Forests
India Jamjing and Sengajan
India Jengdia Beel and Satgaon
India Jhanjimukh - Kokilamukh
India Kaliveli Tank and Yeduyanthittu estuary
India Karaivetti Wildlife Sanctuary
India Karanji Tank
India Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary and Girijapur Barrage
India Kaziranga National Park
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande
India Kokkare Bellur
India Kole Wetland
India Kolleru Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
India Krishnarajasagar Reservoir
India Kuarbari Dalani
India Kukkarahalli Tank
India Kullur Sandai Reservoir
India Kunthangulam Bird Sanctuary
India Kunthur - Kallur Lakes
India Lingambudhi Lake and environs
India Loktak Lake and Keibul Lamjao National Park
India Majuli
India Manas National Park
India Mangal Jodi
India Marine National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake)
India Narasambudhi Lake
India Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary
India Okhla Bird Sanctuary
India Orang National Park
India Pabho Reserve Forest
India Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary
India Pani-Dihing Bird Sanctuary
India Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary
India Pulicat Lake
India Son Beel
India Suchindram Therur, Vembanoor
India Sulekere Lake
India Sultanpur National Park
India Telineelapuram
India Udaipur Lakes Complex
India Uppalapadu
India Vaduvoor Lake Bird Sanctuary
India Vandivoorand Kunnathur Tanks (Madurai)
India Vedanthangal and Karikili Bird Sanctuary
India Veeranam Lake
India Vettangudi Bird Sanctuary
India Watrap Periakulam and Virakasamuthrakulam
India Wellington Reservoir
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
Indonesia Sembilang
Indonesia Way Kambas
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Myitkyina to Sinbo Section
Myanmar Bumphabum
Myanmar Chatthin
Myanmar Htamanthi
Myanmar Hukaung Valley
Myanmar Indawgyi Lake Wildlife Sanctuary and surroundings
Myanmar Kamaing
Myanmar Moyingyi
Myanmar Upper Mogaung Chaung basin
Myanmar Uyu River
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
Philippines Candaba swamp
Philippines Lake Lanao
Philippines Liguasan marsh
Philippines Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary
Sri Lanka Ampara
Sri Lanka Anaiwilundawa complex
Sri Lanka Anuradhapura
Sri Lanka Bellanwila-Attidiya
Sri Lanka Bundala complex
Sri Lanka Jafna Lagoon
Sri Lanka Kantale Tank
Sri Lanka Madura Oya
Sri Lanka Minneriya / Girithale / Kaudulla
Sri Lanka Padaviya
Sri Lanka Pimburettewa Tank
Sri Lanka Polonnaruwa
Sri Lanka Rugam Tank
Sri Lanka Senanayake Samudraya / Nilgala
Sri Lanka Sigiriya
Sri Lanka Udawalawa
Sri Lanka Yala
Thailand Inner Gulf of Thailand
Thailand Lower Central Basin
Vietnam Can Gio
Vietnam Dat Mui
Vietnam Kien Luong
Vietnam Nghia Hung
Vietnam U Minh Thuong
Vietnam Xuan Thuy

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Pelecanus philippensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2017.