Spix's Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii


Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation. undated. Press release 26: Restoring the Spix's Macaw habitat. Available at: #

Anon. 2001. The Spix's Macaw recovery committee will be restructured. Cyanopsitta 60: 16-17.

Anon. 2008. The new Spix's Macaw breeding centre of LPF. Cyanopsitta: 3-5.

Anon. 2015. Großartige Neuigkeiten zur assistierten Reproduktion der Spix-Aras [Great news for assisted reproduction of Spix's Macaws]. Gefiederte Welt 139(1): 5-6.

Barros, Y.; Bianchi , C. A. 2008. Cyanopsitta spixii. In: Machado, A. B. M.; Drummond, G. M.; Paglia, A. P. (ed.), Livro vermelho da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção, Volume 2, pp. 471-472. MMA and Fundação Biodiversitas, Brasília, DF and Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Caparroz, R.; Miyaki, C. Y.; Bampi, M. I.; Wajntal, A. 2001. Analysis of the genetic variability in a sample of the remaining group of Spix's Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii, Psittaciformes: Aves) by DNA fingerprinting. Biological Conservation 99: 307-311.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Collar, N., Boesman, P., Sharpe, C.J. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. Spix's Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

de Soye, Y; Barros, M. 2004. Saving the Spix's Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii - a captive management and species recovery handbook (CD-ROM). Loro Parque Foundation.

Gillespie, F. 2014. Saving Spix's Macaw from extinction. Gulf Times Available at: (Accessed: 23/06/2015).

Reinschmidt, M. 2004. Another sensational hatching of Spix's Macaw at Loro Parque. AFA Watchbird: 28.

Schischakin, N. 2000. Conservation spotlight: the Spix's Macaw. Endangered Species Update 17: 44-6.

Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Tobias, J. A.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Collar, N. J. 2006. Lost and found: a gap analysis for the Neotropical avifauna. Neotropical Birding 1: 4-22.

Tomiska, L. 2015. The second year of the artificial insemination in Al Wabra: two of five eggs hatched successfully. Parrots Daily News Available at: (Accessed: 23/06/2015).

Further resources

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos, videos and sounds of this species in the Internet Bird Collection.

This species has been identified as an Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) trigger - click here for more information

Media resources
Arkive species - Spix’s macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii) 0

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Cyanopsitta spixii. Downloaded from on 18/07/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 18/07/2018.