Spix's Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii


Akcakaya, H. R.; Keith, D. A.; Burgman, M.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Hoffmann, M.; Regan, H. M.; Harrison, I.; Boakes, E. 2017. Inferring extinctions III: a cost-benefit framework for listing extinct species. Biological Conservation 214: 336-342.

Association for the Conservation of Threatened Parrots (ACTP). 2019. Spix's macaw: A small blue parrot extinct in the wild. Available at: https://www.act-parrots.org/spixs-macaw/?lang=en. (Accessed: 20 June 2019).

Barros, Y. D. M., Soye, Y., Miyaki, C. Y., Watson, R., Crosta, L. and Lugarini, C. 2012. Plano de ação nacional para a conservação da ararinha-azul: Cyanopsitta spixii. Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBIO).

Butchart, S. H. M.; Lowe, S.; Martin, R. W.; Symes, A.; Westrip, J. R. S.; Wheatley, H. 2018. Which birds have gone extinct? A novel quantitative classification approach. Biological Conservation 227: 9-18.

Caparroz, R.; Miyaki, C. Y.; Bampi, M. I.; Wajntal, A. 2001. Analysis of the genetic variability in a sample of the remaining group of Spix's Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii, Psittaciformes: Aves) by DNA fingerprinting. Biological Conservation 99: 307-311.

de Soye, Y; Barros, Y.de M. 2004. Saving the Spix's Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii - a captive management and species recovery handbook (CD-ROM). Loro Parque Foundation.

EcoAmericas. 2015. Brazil prepares way for Spix macaw reintroduction.

IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 December 2019).

Keith, D. A.; Butchart S. H. M.; Regan, H. M.; Collen, B.; Harrison, I.; Solow, A. R.; Burgman, M. A. 2017. Inferring extinctions I: a structured method using information on threats. Biological Conservation 214(320-327).

MMA. 2014. Lista Nacional Oficial de Espécies da Fauna Ameaçadas de Extinção. Portaria No 444, de 17 de dezembro de 2014. Diário Oficial da União - Seção 1. Nº 245, quinta-feira, 18 de dezembro de 2014.

Reisfeld, A. 2017. Ararinha-Azul: Sucesso da reintroducao depende de caprinocultura sustentavel na caatinga. Sao Paulo Available at: http://www.savebrasil.org.br/ararinha-newslettermaio/. (Accessed: 20 June 2019).

Reisfeld, A. 2018. Boa notizia para a Ararinha-Azul. Sao Paulo Available at: http://www.savebrasil.org.br/ararinha-azul-ganha-duas-ucs/. (Accessed: 20 June 2019).

Schischakin, N. 2000. Conservation spotlight: the Spix's Macaw. Endangered Species Update 17: 44-6.

Silveira, L. F.; Straube, F. C. 2008. Aves. In: Machado, A.B.M., Drummond, G.M.; Paglia, A.P. (ed.), Livro vermelho da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção. Vol. 2, pp. 378-679. Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Brasília & Fundação Biodiversitas. , Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Thompson, C. J.; Koshkina, V.; Burgman, M. A.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Stone, L. 2017. Inferring extinctions II: an iterative model based on records and surveys. Biological Conservation 214: 328-335.

Further resources

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

This species has been identified as an Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) trigger - click here for more information

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Cyanopsitta spixii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/08/2022.