EW
Spix's Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A2a; D A2a; D A2a; D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Extinct in the Wild
2018 Critically Endangered D
2016 Critically Endangered D
2015 Critically Endangered D
2013 Critically Endangered D
2012 Critically Endangered D
2010 Critically Endangered D1
2009 Critically Endangered D1
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2002 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status nomadic Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Number of locations 0 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 0 poor inferred 2019
Population trend -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 0 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.6 - - -

Population justification: The species is now considered to be Extinct in the Wild (Butchart et. al. 2018).

Trend justification: The species is now considered to be Extinct in the Wild (Butchart et. al. 2018).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brazil N Extinct Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Brazil Curaçá

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Whole (>90%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Whole (>90%) Very Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Cyanopsitta spixii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/01/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/01/2020.