NT
Spiny-faced Antshrike Xenornis setifrons



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Near Threatened D1
2016 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v);C2a(i)
2012 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v);C2a(i)
2008 Vulnerable B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(i)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 54,400 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1500-7000 poor estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-5 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-5 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species is undergoing a moderate decline (Partners in Flight 2019). The only threat known to this forest-dependent species is habitat loss; however forests within the range remain largely unaffected by human activities (P. Salaman in litt. 1999, Schulenberg 2020). Over the past ten years, forests within the range have been lost at a rate of <2% (Global Forest Watch 2020). Population declines are therefore presumably very slow, not exceeding 5% over ten years.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Colombia N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Colombia Capurganá
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Ensenada de Utría
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Los Katíos
Panama Portobelo National Park
Panama Chagres National Park
Panama Narganá Wildlands Area
Panama Darién National Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 120 - 800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Xenornis setifrons. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/06/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/06/2021.