Spectacled Petrel Procellaria conspicillata


Taxonomic source(s)
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable D2
2016 Vulnerable D2
2012 Vulnerable D2
2010 Vulnerable D2
2008 Vulnerable D2
2007 Vulnerable
2005 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 13,700,000 km2 medium
Area of Occupancy (breeding/resident) 9 km2 medium
Number of locations 1 -
Severely fragmented? no -
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 20000 mature individuals medium estimated 2010
Population trend increasing medium estimated 1931-2010
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-9% - - -
Generation length 25.9 years - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage of mature individuals in largest subpopulation 100% - - -

Population justification: 14,400 nesting burrows were counted on Inaccessible Island in 2009-2010 (Ryan and Ronconi 2011). Assuming a burrow occupancy of 90%, this equates to a breeding population of approximately 20,000 breeding birds. The overall population is estimated at around 38,000 ± 7,000 individuals; 7,000 individuals were present at sea off Brazil based on survey data from 1997-1999 (L. Bugoni in litt. 2006).

Trend justification: Between 1999-2004, the numbers of breeders may have increased by up to 45% (Ryan et al. 2006), but the toll taken by bycatch in longline fisheries is poorly understood. Bycatch may affect juveniles disproportionately more than adults; a bias that will not be reflected at the breeding grounds for several years.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Angola extant vagrant
Argentina extant native yes
Australia extant vagrant
Brazil extant native yes
High Seas extant native yes
Namibia extant native yes
South Africa extant native yes
St Helena (to UK) extant native yes
Uruguay extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
St Helena (to UK) Inaccessible Island

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Shrubland Temperate major breeding
Altitude 250 - 500 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 0 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Sus domesticus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Procellaria conspicillata. Downloaded from on 05/12/2023.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 05/12/2023.