LC
Spectacled Bulbul Ixidia erythropthalmos



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type Average mass 19 g
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 3,550,000 km2
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size unknown - - -
Population trend decreasing - estimated -
Generation length 2.7 years - - -

Population justification: The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as fairly common in most of its range, although rare in southern Myanmar and extinct in Singapore (del Hoyo et al. 2005).

Trend justification: The population is estimated to be in decline following the species's local extinction in Singapore owing to habitat loss (del Hoyo et al. 2005).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Brunei extant native yes
Indonesia extant native yes
Malaysia extant native yes
Myanmar extant native yes
Singapore extinct native yes
Thailand extant native yes
Vietnam extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Malaysia Nakawan Range
Malaysia Bintang Range
Malaysia Belum-Temenggor
Malaysia Central Titiwangsa Range
Malaysia Selangor Heritage Park
Malaysia Tanjung Tuan
Malaysia Endau-Rompin
Malaysia Panti forest
Malaysia Krau Wildlife Reserve
Malaysia Taman Negara National Park
Malaysia South-east Pahang peat swamp forest
Malaysia Crocker Range
Malaysia Mount Kinabalu
Malaysia Trus Madi Range
Malaysia Danum Valley Conservation Area
Malaysia Maliau Basin Conservation Area
Malaysia Tabin Wildlife Reserve
Malaysia Kabili-Sepilok
Malaysia Tanjung Datu-Samunsam Protected Area
Malaysia Gunung Pueh
Malaysia Bako-Buntal Bay
Malaysia Bau Limestone
Malaysia Gunung Penrissen
Malaysia Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary
Malaysia Niah National Park
Malaysia Lambir Hills National Park
Malaysia Mulu - Buda Protected Area
Malaysia Kelabit Highlands
Thailand Bala Sector, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary
Thailand Bu Do - Sungai Padi
Thailand Hala Sector, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary and Bang Lang National Park
Thailand Khao Banthad
Thailand Khao Luang
Thailand Khao Nor Chuchi
Thailand Thaleban

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Swamp major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Ixidia erythropthalmos. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/spectacled-bulbul-ixidia-erythropthalmos on 23/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 23/02/2024.