VU
Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila adalberti



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Vulnerable D1
2016 Vulnerable D1
2013 Vulnerable D1
2012 Vulnerable D1
2008 Vulnerable D1
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Endangered
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 204,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 970 good estimated 2016
Population trend Increasing good estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16 - - -

Population justification: The species's global population was estimated at 485 breeding pairs in 2016, equating to 970 mature individuals (S. Cabezas-Díaz and J. C. Atienza in litt. 2016, J. R. Garrido in litt. 2017), which is assumed to be indicative of a total population of c.1,450 individuals.

Trend justification: The Spanish population is estimated to have increased by 135% between 2001-2012, with a long-term (1984 - 2012) annual increase of 9.6% (BirdLife International 2015). The species recolonised Portugal in 2003, where it has been slowly increasing since, with six breeding pairs recorded in 2011, nine in 2012 and 16 in 2016 (S. Cabezas-Díaz and J. C. Atienza in litt. 2016).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria V Extinct Yes
France V Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos
Spain Cabras, Aljibe and Montecoche mountain range
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Aldeaquemada-Dañador
Spain Sierra Pelada mountain range
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Las Villuercas mountain range
Spain Campo Arañuelo-Valdecañas reservoir
Spain Monfragüe
Spain Coria mountain ranges
Spain East Gata mountain range
Spain Rosarito and Navalcán reservoirs-La Iglesuela (Tietar valley)
Spain Toledo mountains-Cabañeros
Spain Canalizos mountain range (Saceruela)
Spain Alcudia valley and mountain range
Spain El Pardo-Viñuelas
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias
Spain Gredos and Candelario mountain ranges
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain Talamanca-Camarma
Spain Northern slope of Guadarrama mountain range
Spain Tietar valley
Spain Peña de Francia
Spain Prelittoral mountain ranges of Granada
Spain Ubrique and Grazalema mountain ranges
Spain Sierra Morena de Sevilla
Spain Lebrija, Las Cabezas and Espera lagoons
Spain Medina and Puerto Real lagoons
Spain Medina-Sidonia
Spain Sierra Morena de Córdoba
Spain Madrona and Andújar mountain ranges
Spain West Andévalo
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Puerto Peña reservoir-Valdecaballeros
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Iruelas valley
Spain La Janda
Spain Sierra de Aracena
Spain Las Contiendas mountain range
Spain Dehesa de Garrapilos
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Spain River Moros
Spain Campo de Montiel
Spain Azuaga-Llerena-Peraleda de Zaucejo
Spain Bienvenida-Usagre-Ribera del Fresno
Spain Alange
Spain Cijara reservoir
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Cedillo reservoir
Spain El Oso - Corredor del Río Adaja
Spain Mudela
Spain Baja Alcarria

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Temperate major resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avipoxvirus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Aquila adalberti. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/05/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/05/2020.