VU
Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila adalberti



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable D1
2013 Vulnerable D1
2012 Vulnerable D1
2008 Vulnerable D1
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Endangered
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 204,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 970 good estimated 2016
Population trend Increasing good estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16 - - -

Population justification: The species's global population was estimated at 485 breeding pairs in 2016, equating to 970 mature individuals (S. Cabezas-Díaz, J. C. Atienza et al. in litt. 2016), and assumed to be indicative of a total population of c.1,450 individuals.

Trend justification: The Spanish population is estimated to have increased by 135% between 2001-2012, with a long-term (1984 - 2012) annual increase of 9.6% (BirdLife International 2015). The species recolonised Portugal in 2003, and has been slowly increasing since, with six breeding pairs recorded in 2011, nine in 2012 and 16 in 2016 (S. Cabezas-Díaz, J. C. Atienza et al. in litt. 2016).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria V Extinct Yes
France V Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos
Spain Alange
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Alcudia valley and mountain range
Spain Aldeaquemada-Dañador
Spain Azuaga-Llerena-Peraleda de Zaucejo
Spain Baja Alcarria
Spain Bienvenida-Usagre-Ribera del Fresno
Spain Campo Arañuelo-Valdecañas reservoir
Spain Campo de Montiel
Spain Canalizos mountain range (Saceruela)
Spain Cedillo reservoir
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges
Spain Cijara reservoir
Spain Confidential
Spain Coria mountain ranges
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias
Spain El Oso - Corredor del Río Adaja
Spain El Pardo-Viñuelas
Spain Gredos and Candelario mountain ranges
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Iruelas valley
Spain Las Villuercas mountain range
Spain Madrona and Andújar mountain ranges
Spain Medina and Puerto Real lagoons
Spain Medina-Sidonia
Spain Monfragüe
Spain Mudela
Spain Northern slope of Guadarrama mountain range
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Puerto Peña reservoir-Valdecaballeros
Spain River Moros
Spain Rosarito and Navalcán reservoirs-La Iglesuela (Tietar valley)
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Sierra Morena de Córdoba
Spain Sierra Morena de Sevilla
Spain Talamanca-Camarma
Spain Tietar valley
Spain Toledo mountains-Cabañeros
Spain West Andévalo

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Temperate major resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Named species - Avipoxvirus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Aquila adalberti. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/11/2019.