VU
Southern Rockhopper Penguin Eudyptes chrysocome



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2abcde+3bcde+4abcde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2abcde+3bcde+4abcde
2012 Vulnerable A2abcde+3bcde+4abcde
2010 Vulnerable A2a,b,c,d,e; A3b,c,d,e; A4a,b,c,d,e
2008 Vulnerable A2a,b,c,d,e; A3b,c,d,e; A4a,b,c,d,e
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 13,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 47,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,640 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500000 medium estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 34 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 34 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.5 - - -

Population justification: Several populations have experienced major long-term population crashes. Approximately 1.5 million pairs are estimated to have been lost from Campbell Island (94% of the original total) between 1942 and 1986 (Cunningham and Moors 1994), with further 21.8% decrease between 1986 and 2012 (Morrison et al. 2015). In the Falkland Islands (Malvinas), the population fell by around 1.2 million pairs between 1932 and 2000 (20% of the original total) (Pütz et al. 2003a). At Staten Island, the numbers of Rockhopper Penguins decreased by 24 % between the censuses of 1998 and 2010 (Raya Rey et al. 2014). Between 1987/88 and 2012/13, numbers at Marion Island decreased by about 52%, from 138,000 pairs to 65,000 pairs, equivalent to 72% in three generations (Dyer and Crawford 2015). The long-term trends remain unknown for the Kerguelen and Crozet populations (CEBC-CNRS database, C.A. Bost, pers. comm.). Several other sites appear to have suffered severe declines (of more than 40%) between the 1970s and the 1990s: Auckland Islands and Antipodes Islands(Cooper 1992, Hiscock and Chilvers 2013). 
Population modelling, based on those breeding sites that have been accurately surveyed, indicates that between 1971 and 2007 (three generations) the number of Southern Rockhopper Penguins declined by 34% (BirdLife International 2010). In early 2016 there was a mortality of unknown extent of Rockhopper penguins in the Southwest Atlantic before and during the moulting period, with dead penguins (mainly caused by starvation) found along the coasts of Tierra del Fuego (around 300), the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands (300-400 on Saunders Islands) and near Puerto Deseado (around 200) (Andrea Raya Rey and Sarah Crofts, pers.com.). However, while the extent of this recent mortality is currently not assessable, it appears that it may have affected the population at a larger regional scale (Crofts and Stanworth 2016, A. Raya Rey, pers. comm.). 

Trend justification: A decline of 34% over the last three generations (30 years), as calculated from survey data, has been driven largely by the declines in the Falklands (where data are most complete), and to a lesser extent, Marion Island (BirdLife International 2010). The Falklands declines may be even steeper: using the less uncertain 2000 estimate (instead of 1995) requires greater extrapolation, but this would yield an overall decline of 55.2%.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant Yes
French Southern Territories N Extant Yes
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Chile Isla Solitario
Chile Islas Diego Ramírez y Rocas Norte
Chile Islas Ildefonso
New Zealand Adams Island
New Zealand Antipodes Islands
New Zealand Campbell Islands
New Zealand Main Auckland Island

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 60 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Energy production & mining Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Capra hircus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Oryctolagus cuniculus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Pasteurella multocida Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Rattus norvegicus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species disturbance, Competition, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Fuels - - Non-trivial Recent
Other household goods - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Eudyptes chrysocome. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2017.