Southern Mealy Amazon Amazona farinosa


Justification of Red List Category
Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, and the susceptibility of this newly split to hunting and trapping, it is suspected that its population will undergo a moderately rapid decline over three generations from 2002, and it is therefore listed as Near Threatened.

Population justification
The species's population size has not been quantified.

Trend justification
This species is predicted to lose 17.9-28.2% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (37 years) from 2002, based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). This, coupled with the species's susceptibility to hunting and trapping, suggests that the population will decline by 25-29% over the same time period.

Distribution and population

Amazona farinosa is widespread from eastern Panama, south and east through Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil (del Hoyo et al. 1997). Large populations are said to persist in the less disturbed parts of its range.


This species inhabits extensive tracts of lowland tropical evergreen forest, also occurring in palm stands, deciduous and gallery woodland and secondary growth near forest (del Hoyo et al. 1997). It feeds on a variety of fruit and seeds, also taking buds, flowers and nectar. Breeding in south-central Brazil has been noted in November-February (del Hoyo et al. 1997).


The primary threat to this species is accelerating deforestation in the Amazon Basin as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (who would subsequently be absolved of the need to reforest illegally cleared land) (Bird et al. 2011). This species is heavily hunted for food in French Guiana, and trapping pressure for trade is assumed to be much more widespread, with trade levels in this species described as generally moderate, and heavy in some countries (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed under CITES Appendix II. Some of its habitat is protected, such as in Manu National Park, Peru (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to monitor trends in the species's population. Monitor rates of forest loss through remote sensing. Conduct awareness-raising activities to reduce hunting, trapping and trade. Increase the amount of suitable habitat that is formally protected.


Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Stattersfield, A., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Amazona farinosa. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2021.