Southern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialoides


Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to number around 4,000,000 individuals.

Trend justification
There are no data to suggest major changes over recent years (Brooke 2004).

Distribution and population

This species breeds along the coast of Antarctica and outlying islands, including the South Sandwich Islands (Islas Sandwich del Sur), South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, Bouvet Island (to Norway) and Peter Island. At sea, it can range as far north as the coats of South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, and South America up to central Chile and southern Brazil.


This marine species is usually assoaciated with cold waters fringing the ice pack. It feeds mostly on crustaceans, fish and cephalopods with the proportion of each varying locally. Most food is taken by surface-seizing whilst in flocks. It attends trawlers and will take galley refuse from ships. Breeding begins in November and it is highly colonial, breeding on steep rocky slopes and precipitous cliffs on sheltered ledges or in hollows. It is a migratory species, ranging widely over the Southern Ocean (del Hoyo et al. 1992).


Climate change is already having a measurable effect on this species, causing later breeding and lowered reproductive output due to increased variability in the climate regime within the species range, with future impacts predicted to be greater (Carboneras et al. 2018).


Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Fjagesund, T., Calvert, R., Hermes, C., Ekstrom, J., Martin, R., Newton, P., Stuart, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Fulmarus glacialoides. Downloaded from on 15/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 15/08/2022.