LC
Southern Festive Amazon Amazona festiva



Justification

Justification of Red List Category

This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km² combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as generally common (Collar et al. 2020). Locally, the species may be abundant and numerous, e.g. in the upper Amazon in western Brazil, in southeast Colombia around Leticia, and north of río Napo in Sucumbíos, Ecuador (Collar et al. 2020).

Trend justification
The species is in slow decline as a consequence of habitat loss and trapping in parts of its range. Over the past three generations (35.7 years) 7% of tree cover has been lost within the range; since 2016 deforestation has been accelerating to a rate equivalent to 11% over three generations (Global Forest Watch 2021, using Hansen et al. [2013] data and methods disclosed therein). The impact of trapping on the population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as rare in trade, though juveniles are regularly poached from nests in northeastern Peru (Collar et al. 2020). As large parts of the range remain pristine and inaccessible (Collar et al. 2020), the rate of population decline is not thought to be in excess of 20% over three generations. This value however requires confirmation.

Distribution and population

Amazona festiva is local in eastern Ecuador, and ranges from there, south-eastern Colombia and eastern Peru through the Amazon Basin to western Pará in north-central Brazil (del Hoyo et al. 1997, Restall et al. 2006).

Ecology

This species is closely associated with humid lowland forest along major rivers, up to c.500 m. It occurs in "várzea" (seasonally flooded forest), "igapó" (permanently flooded forest), on river islands, in riparian growth, gallery forest, and occasionally in wet savanna (Collar et al. 2020). It does not occur in dryland forest, but has been recorded in cacao plantations (Collar et al. 2020). Irregular movements may explain some reports from east Ecuador and others in the Amazon delta, but this remains uncertain until these records are verified (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Threats

A major threat to this species is accelerating deforestation in the Amazon basin, as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduced the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and included an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (Bird et al. 2011). Nevertheless, large parts of its remote range remain pristine and intact (Collar et al. 2020).
The species is also susceptible to hunting and trapping (A. Lees in litt. 2011, Collar et al. 2020). Poaching of juveniles from the nest is prevalent especially in northeastern Peru, where this species was the third-most trapped species during the 1990s (Collar et al. 2020). International trade is rare (Collar et al. 2020, S. Bruslund in litt. 2022).

Conservation actions

Conservation and Research Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. The species occurs in several protected areas across its range. It is listed as Near Threatened at the national level in Ecuador and Peru (SERFOR 2018, Freile et al. 2019).

Conservation and Research Actions Proposed
Quantify the population size. Investigate the species ecology, behaviour and movement patterns. Investigate the impact of trapping on the population trend. Monitor rates of habitat loss. Monitor trade levels. Expand the protected area network to effectively protect key sites. Effectively manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Preserve undisturbed habitat on private lands through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture. Raise awareness for the species and its habitat. Enforce regulations to ban trapping.

Identification

34 cm. Generally green parrot with red lores and frontal band, pale blue shading above and behind the eye, red back and rump, dark blue primaries and a yellowish tip to the tail. Dark grey bill.

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Hermes, C.

Contributors
Bruslund, S., Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Lees, A., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Amazona festiva. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/09/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/09/2022.