VU
Southern Brown Kiwi Apteryx australis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Apteryx australis, A. mantelli and A. rowi (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously treated as A. australis and A. mantelli (incorporating rowi) following Baker et al. (1995); prior to that all three taxa were lumped as A. australis following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
Baker, A. J.; Daugherty, C. H.; Colbourne, R.; McLennan, J. L. 1995. Flightless Brown Kiwis of New Zealand possess extremely subdivided population structure and cryptic species like small mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92: 8254-8258.
Baker, A. J.; Daugherty, C. H.; Colbourne, R.; McLennan, J. L. 1995. Flightless Brown Kiwis of New Zealand possess extremely subdivided population structure and cryptic species like small mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92: 8254-8258.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2be+3be+4be

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2be+3be+4be
2013 Vulnerable A2be+3be+4be
2012 Vulnerable A2be+3be+4be
2008 Vulnerable A2b,e; A3b,e; A4b,e
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 39,300 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 19900 medium estimated 2008
Population trend Decreasing medium inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 5-10 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 20 - - -

Population justification: The 2013 total population was estimated at 21,350 birds (Heather & Robertson 2015), down from previous estimates of 27,225 (± c.25%) birds in 1996 (Robertson 2003) and 29,800 birds in 2008 (Holzapfel et al. 2008).The isolated and genetically distinctive Haast population was reported as 225 individuals in 1996 (Robertson 2003), but intensive pest control and ex-situ hatching of wild-sourced eggs and chick-rearing in predator-free crèches, and the establishment of small populations at pest-free mainland and island sites has resulted in a growth to 350 birds in 2013 (Robertson & de Monchy 2012, Heather & Robertson 2015). The species is still common in localised areas in Fiordland (9000 birds) and in central and southern parts of Stewart Island (12,000 birds) but is thought to be declining (Heather & Robertson 2015). Stoat trapping in the Murchison Mountains resulted in a doubling of chick survival, and this turned a population decline of 1.6% per year into a gain of 1.2% per year (Tansell et al 2016). In 125 ha of abandoned farmland at Mason Bay, Stewart Island, the tokoeka population dropped from 17 pairs in 1993 to 11 pairs in 2013 (2.2% per year), but it is not clear if this has been driven by recruitment failure through predation of chicks by feral cats, or by habitat loss as flax, tussock and scrub reclaim former grassland feeding sites.

Trend justification: The species is common on Stewart Island but is thought to be declining (from c.20,000 birds in 1996 [Robertson 2003] to 15,000 in 2008 [Holzapfel et al. 2008]) and in localised areas in northern Fiordland (10,000 birds) and southern Fiordland (4,500 birds) (Heather and Robertson 1997, Holzapfel et al. 2008). The inferred decline of 5.8% per year on the mainland, like its congener A. mantelli (McLennan et al. 1996), is now considered to have been much too pessimistic, and the actual rate of decline is thought to be closer to 2% (Holzapfel et al. 2008). The generation length used here may need to be revised, with possible implications for the inferred rate of decline.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
New Zealand N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
New Zealand North Coast Rakiura
New Zealand Paterson Inlet The Neck
New Zealand Port Adventure
New Zealand Port Pegasus

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Grassland Temperate marginal resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Apteryx australis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/07/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/07/2019.