Sooty Tern Onychoprion fuscatus


Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Şekercioğlu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Dunlop, J.N.; Surman, C.A. 2012. The role of foraging ecology in the contrasting responses of two dark terns to a changing ocean climate. Marine Ornithology 40(2): 105-110.

Erwin, C.A.; Congdon, B.C. 2007. Day-to-day variation in sea-surface temperature reduces sooty tern Sterna fuscata foraging success on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 331: 255-266.

Feare, C. 1999. Ants take over from rats on Bird Island, Seychelles. Bird Conservation International 9(1): 95-96.

Feare, C.J.; Gill, E.L.; Carty, P.; Carty, H.E.; Ayrton, V.J. 1997. Habitat use by Seychelles Sooty Terns Sterna fusca and implications for colony management. Biological Conservation 81: 69-76.

Higgins, P.J.; Davies, S.J.J.F. 1996. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds Vol. 3: Snipe to Pigeons. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: (Accessed: 10 December 2020).

Rodríguez, C.; Torres, R.; Drummond, H. 2006. Eradicating introduced mammals from a forested tropical island. Biological Conservation 130: 98-105.

van Halewyn, R.; Norton, R. L. 1984. The status and conservation of seabirds in the Caribbean. In: Croxall. J. P. (ed.), Seabird Status and Conservation: A Supplement, pp. 169-222. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Wetlands International. 2020. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at:

Further resources

Click here to read about RSPB's work with Sooty Terns on Ascension Island

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Onychoprion fuscatus. Downloaded from on 01/06/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 01/06/2023.