NT
Sooty Shearwater Ardenna grisea



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Ardenna grisea (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Puffinus as P. griseus.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Near Threatened A2de+3de+4de
2016 Near Threatened A2de+3de+4de
2012 Near Threatened A2de+3de+4de
2010 Near Threatened A2d,e; A3d,e; A4d,e
2008 Near Threatened A2d,e; A3d,e; A4d,e
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - Australia
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 466,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 204,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 8800000 medium estimated 2013
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 21.2 - - -

Population justification: The global population totals at 4.4 million pairs, roughly equating to 19.0–23.6 million individuals (Newman et al. 2009, Waugh et al. 2013).

Trend justification: There are persistent signs of a current decline in the global population (Brooke 2004). In North America and in New Zealand, the population trends were found to be decreasing (Butcher and Niven 2007, Clucas et al. 2008, Scott et al. 2008). Though the rate of decline of the whole population has not been quantified, moderately rapid population declines are suspected.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria V Extant
American Samoa V Extant
Angola U Extant
Anguilla (to UK) U Extant
Antarctica N Extant Yes
Antigua and Barbuda U Extant
Argentina N Extant
Australia N Extant Yes
Bahamas U Extant
Barbados V Extant
Belgium V Extant
Benin U Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bouvet Island (to Norway) U Extant
Brazil N Extant Yes
Cameroon U Extant
Canada U Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Chile N Extant Yes
China (mainland) V Extant
Colombia U Extant
Congo U Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the U Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire U Extant
Cuba V Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes
Dominica U Extant
Ecuador U Extant
Egypt V Extant
El Salvador U Extant
Equatorial Guinea U Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) U Extant
Fiji N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes
French Guiana U Extant
French Polynesia V Extant
French Southern Territories U Extant
Gabon U Extant
Gambia U Extant
Germany U Extant
Ghana U Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant
Guatemala V Extant Yes
Guinea U Extant
Guinea-Bissau U Extant
Guyana U Extant
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) U Extant
Iceland U Extant
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy V Extant
Jamaica V Extant
Japan U Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kiribati U Extant
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Liberia V Extant
Madagascar U Extant
Malta V Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) V Extant
Mauritania V Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of U Extant
Morocco U Extant
Mozambique U Extant
Namibia U Extant
Nauru U Extant
Netherlands U Extant
New Caledonia (to France) U Extant
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Nigeria V Extant
Norfolk Island (to Australia) U Extant
Norway V Extant
Oman V Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Peru U Extant
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) V Extant
Russia V Extant
Russia (Asian) V Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant Yes
Senegal U Extant
Sierra Leone U Extant
Solomon Islands U Extant
South Africa U Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands U Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant
St Helena (to UK) V Extant
St Lucia V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Suriname U Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Taiwan, China V Extant
Togo U Extant
Tonga U Extant
Trinidad and Tobago V Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) U Extant
Tuvalu U Extant
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) U Extant
Uruguay U Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Vanuatu U Extant
Venezuela U Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) U Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) U Extant
Western Sahara U Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Argentina Isla de los Estados, Islas de Año Nuevo e islotes adyacentes
Argentina Islas Malvinas
Chile Corriente de Humboldt Arica
Chile Guabún
Chile Guamblin Island
Chile Isla Guafo
Chile Isla Guafo
Chile Isla Metalqui
Chile Isla Mocha
Chile Isla Santa María
Chile Islas Ildefonso
Chile Lago Budi
Chile Monumento Natural Pingüineras de Puñihuil
Chile Parque Nacional Cabo de Hornos
Chile Patranca Island
Chile Puaucho
Chile Quinchele Inland and surrouding sea
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Beauchêne Island
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Bird Island
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Kidney Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Pebble Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Sea Lion Islands Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Seal Bay, East Falkland
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Speedwell Island Group
High Seas Evlanov Seamount and Basin
Japan Futagojima islets / Sanganjima islet - Marine
New Zealand Auckland Islands 2 (near-shore)
New Zealand Chatham (offshore)
New Zealand Chatham Islands (nearshore)
New Zealand Cook Strait
New Zealand Dunedin Coast (offshore)
New Zealand Fiordland - West Coast South Island (South) (offshore)
New Zealand Kermadec (offshore)
New Zealand Marlborough Sounds
New Zealand North Eastern North Island (offshore)
New Zealand North Otago (offshore)
New Zealand Northern Titi Muttonbird Islands
New Zealand Port Adventure
New Zealand Rakiura (offshore)
New Zealand Snares (eastern islands)
New Zealand Snares (offshore)
New Zealand South Otago (offshore)
New Zealand Southern South Island (offshore)
New Zealand Southern Titi Muttonbird Islands
New Zealand Whenua Hou Codfish Island
Russia (Asian) Lesser Kuril Ridge and Kunashir Island
Spain Cape Busto-Luanco
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Costa da Morte
USA Bering Sea Shelf Edge 166W55N
USA Channel Islands - Northern
USA Olympic Continental Shelf
USA Piedras Blancas, CA
USA San Mateo/Monterey, CA
USA Shumagin Islands Marine
USA Unimak & Akutan Passes

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus norvegicus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Fuels - - Non-trivial Recent
Fuels - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Ardenna grisea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2019.