LC
Sooty Gull Larus hemprichii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 7,050,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 8,860,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 1995
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.5 - - -

Population justification: Delany and Scott (2006) estimate the population to be 150,000-300,000 individuals.

Trend justification: Although Wetlands International consider the population to be increasing, the population is suspected to be in decline owing to unsustainable levels of exploitation (del Hoyo et al. 1996).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
India V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kenya N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Kenya Sabaki River Mouth
Kenya Tana River Delta
Tanzania Dar es Salaam coast
United Arab Emirates Qarnain Island
Iran, Islamic Republic of Pozam - Maytab coast
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hormoz island
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Oman Duqm
Oman Halaaniyaat Islands
Oman Khawr Hassan
Oman Khawr ad Dahariz
Oman Jazirat Hino
Oman Khor Mughsayl
Oman Daymaniyat Islands
Saudi Arabia Al-Wajh Bank
Saudi Arabia Umm al-Qamari
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
Yemen Jaza'ir al-Zubayr
Yemen Jaza'ir al-Hanish
Yemen Abdullah Gharib lagoons
Yemen Ra's Fartak
Yemen Qishn beach
Yemen Islands off Bir Ali
Yemen Aden
Yemen Qalansiya lagoon, Socotra
Yemen Islands north of Al-Hudaydah
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khor Jask
Iran, Islamic Republic of Chahbahar Bay and Khor Konarak
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Ra's as Sawadi - Juzor as Sawadi
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Khor Dirif
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
United Arab Emirates Dayyinah Island (Diynah)
Yemen Bahr Ibn Abbas - Ra's Isa
Yemen Al-Mukha - Al-Khawkhah
Djibouti Les Sept Frères
Yemen Qishn beach - Marine
Oman Jazirat Hino / Juzor al Halaaniyaat - Marine
Oman Masirah - Marine
Yemen Al-Ikhwan (Socotra)
Yemen Darsa
United Arab Emirates Sir Bu Na'air Island
United Arab Emirates Alqurm Wa Lehfeiyah (Khor Kalba)
Yemen Abd al-Kuri (Socotra)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches major breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Larus hemprichii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/11/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/11/2020.