LC
Sooty Gull Larus hemprichii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency low
Land-mass type Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 7,050,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 8,860,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size unknown poor estimated 1995
Population trend decreasing - suspected -
Generation length 11.5 years - - -

Population justification: Delany and Scott (2006) estimate the population to be 150,000-300,000 individuals.

Trend justification: Although Wetlands International consider the population to be increasing, the population is suspected to be in decline owing to unsustainable levels of exploitation (del Hoyo et al. 1996).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Bahrain extant vagrant yes
Djibouti extant native yes
Egypt extant native yes
Eritrea extant native yes
India extant vagrant
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Israel extant vagrant
Jordan extant vagrant
Kenya extant native yes
Lebanon extant vagrant yes
Maldives extant vagrant
Mozambique extant native yes
Oman extant native yes yes
Pakistan extant native yes
Qatar extant native yes
Saudi Arabia extant native yes
Somalia extant native yes
Sri Lanka extant vagrant
Sudan extant native yes
Tanzania extant native yes
United Arab Emirates extant native yes
Yemen extant native yes yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Kenya Sabaki River Mouth
Kenya Tana River Delta
Tanzania Dar es Salaam coast
Iran, Islamic Republic of Pozam - Maytab coast
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hormoz island
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Oman Duqm
Oman Halaaniyaat Islands
Oman Khawr Hassan
Oman Khawr ad Dahariz
Oman Jazirat Hino
Oman Khor Mughsayl
Oman Daymaniyat Islands
Saudi Arabia Al-Wajh Bank
Saudi Arabia Umm al-Qamari
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
Yemen Zubayr group of islands
Yemen Abdullah Gharib lagoons
Yemen Ra's Fartak
Yemen Qishn beach
Yemen Darsa
Yemen Islands north of Al-Hudaydah
Yemen Jaza'ir al-Hanish
Yemen Islands off Bir Ali
United Arab Emirates Sir Bu Na'air Island
United Arab Emirates Dayyinah Island (Diynah)
United Arab Emirates Qarnain Island
United Arab Emirates Alqurm Wa Lehfeiyah (Khor Kalba)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches major breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Larus hemprichii. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/sooty-gull-larus-hemprichii on 21/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 21/02/2024.