EN
Sooty Albatross Phoebetria fusca



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Robertson, C. J. R.; Nunn, G. B. 1998. Towards a new taxonomy for albatrosses. In: Robertson, G.; Gales, R. (ed.), Albatross biology and conservation, pp. 13-19. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, Australia.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A4bd A4bd; B2ab(v)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered A4bd
2016 Endangered A4bd
2012 Endangered A4bd
2010 Endangered A4b,d
2008 Endangered A4b,d
2007 Endangered
2005 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2003 Endangered
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 2500 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 76,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 36,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,900 medium
Number of locations 6-10 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 21234-28656 medium estimated 1998
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 60 - - -
Number of subpopulations 5 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 30 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated at 10,617 - 14,328 breeding pairs.

Trend justification: On Possession Island (Crozet), the population declined by 58% between 1980 and 1995 (Weimerskirch and Jouventin 1998) and continues to decline, although at a slower rate (Delord et al. 2008). This equates to an 82% decline between 1980 and 2006 at an average rate of 4.2% per year (Delord et al. 2008). Although since 2006 the population has been increasing again at 2.7% per year, the numbers remain low compared to those of 20 or more years ago. On Marion Island, the population declined by 25% from 1990-1998 (a decline of about 2.6% per year: Crawford et al. 2003) and continued to decline at about 3% per year from 1998 to 2006 (Schoombie et al. 2016). However, from 2006 to 2014, the population has increased at c. 4% per year (Schoombie et al. 2016). On Gough Island (c.36% global population), the population appears to have decreased by over 50% from 1972-2000 (Cuthbert and Sommer 2004a), although recent counts of breeding birds indicates the number of breeding pairs remained stable from 2000 and 2015 (Cuthbert et al. 2014). Limited counts have been made on Tristan and Inaccessible, and indicate a population of c.3,157 (ACAP 2012). Overall, these declines equate to 60% over three generations (90 years), with a trend start date of 1960. However, this species, being a biennial breeder, has a highly variable breeding population between years. Better data are required from Gough and Prince Edward Islands, in particular whether the population on Prince Edward is increasing. The long life expectancy of the species makes it difficult to determine the period over which an analysis of trends should be conducted.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antarctica V Extant
Argentina N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) V Extant
French Southern Territories N Extant Yes
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Mauritius V Extant
New Zealand V Extant
Réunion (to France) V Extant
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands V Extant
St Helena (to UK) N Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
St Helena (to UK) Tristan Island
St Helena (to UK) Inaccessible Island
St Helena (to UK) Nightingale Island group
St Helena (to UK) Gough Island
French Southern Territories Île de la Possession
French Southern Territories Île de l'Est
French Southern Territories Île aux Cochons
French Southern Territories Îles des Apôtres
French Southern Territories Île des Pingouins
French Southern Territories Falaises d'Entrecasteaux
French Southern Territories Île Saint Paul
South Africa Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve
Uruguay Atlantic Ocean and Rio de la Plata mouth
St Helena (to UK) Atlantic, Southeast 2 - Marine
St Helena (to UK) Atlantic, Southeast 4 - Marine
St Helena (to UK) Gough Island - Marine
St Helena (to UK) Atlantic, Southeast 6 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southeast 29 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 1 - Marine
South Africa Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 3 - Marine
South Africa Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 4 - Marine
South Africa Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 7 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 5 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 6 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 8 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 9 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 15 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Western 70 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 48 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 16 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 17 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 49 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Western 71 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 51 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Western 17 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 18 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Western 20 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 22 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 23 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 24 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Eastern 1 - Marine
South Africa Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve - Marine
French Southern Territories Île aux Cochons / Îles des Apôtres - Marine
French Southern Territories Île de la Possession / Île de l'Est - Marine
French Southern Territories Île des Pingouins - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 41 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Western 27 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Eastern 3 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southeast 11 - Marine
St Helena (to UK) Atlantic, Southeast 12 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southeast 13 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southeast 14 - Marine

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Mus musculus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Pasteurella multocida Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Phoebetria fusca. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/08/2020.