LC
Song Thrush Turdus philomelos



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 23,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 27,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 75000000-119999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.3 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 24,400,000-38,400,000 pairs, which equates to 48,800,000-76,800,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.65% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 75,000,000-118,000,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: In Europe the overall trend from 1980-2013 was increasing (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia I Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Chad V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan V Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Mali V Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand I Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) I Extinct
Sudan N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Lithuania Zemaitija National Park
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Bicaz gorge and Hăşmaş Mountains
Romania Rodnei Mountains
Slovenia Julijci
Slovenia Kočevsko
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia River Mura
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain
Poland Pisz forest
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Serifos island
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Mount Grammos
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Litokaira
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Lämsänaapa-Sakkala-aapa
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Luosto
Finland Kevo
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Russia (European) Buzulukski forest
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Surroundings of Kiyesh'yaur lake
Russia (European) Zhigulevski Nature Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Syra Pogonya mire
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
France Confluent des vallées de la Meuse et de la Chiers
France Marais de Sacy
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Massacre
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Tarvisio Forest
Italy Lessini and Pasubio mountains
Italy Foreste Casentinesi
Italy Apennines from Passo del Cerreto to Monte Caligi
Italy Val Grande
Italy Assa valley
Serbia Bosutska forest
Serbia Cer mountain
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Sysľovské fields
Slovakia Horná Orava
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Tríbeč
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Zoological Gardens of Lainz
Austria Lobau
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Nockberge National Park
Austria Kaisergebirge
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Ober-Moos pond
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Twiste reservior
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Russia (Central Asian) Oleni brooks
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Akh lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Istochnoye, Sredneye and Schuch'ye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Belasitza mountain
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Ponor
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Osogovo Mountain
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Mikre Meadows
Bulgaria Palakaria
Bulgaria Vasilyovska Mountain
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Rupite
Bulgaria Devetashko Plateau
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Zemen Gordge
Bulgaria Emine
France Montagne de la Serre
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Sura environs
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Russia (European) Kilemarski Reserve
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Pirin
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Ukraine Krasnopols'kyj Forest
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Lebanon Shouf Cedars Nature Reserve
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Germany Vogelsberg
Armenia Haghartsin
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Serbia Derdap gorge
Serbia Golija
Serbia Kucaj-Beljanica
Serbia Stara mountains
Serbia Valjevske mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Forest Boreal suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Turdus philomelos. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/06/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/06/2022.