Solitary Tinamou Tinamus solitarius


Justification of Red List Category
This species qualifies as Near Threatened as declines in its population are suspected to approach the threshold for classification as Vulnerable.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected, owing to rates of habitat loss and hunting pressure.

Distribution and population

Tinamus solitarius occurs in the Atlantic forest of east Brazil (Pernambuco to Rio Grande do Sul and inland to south Mato Grosso), south-east Paraguay and extreme north-east Argentina (Misiones) (Cabot et al. 1992, Sick 1993). There are two subspecies, with the north-east Brazil race pernambucensis having suffered a marked range contraction: not more than 100 individuals were estimated in 1971 (Cabot et al. 1992); however a recent study suggests this may not be a valid taxon (Amaral and Silveira 2004). The nominate race is rare throughout its range owing to hunting pressure and habitat loss, although it is still relatively common in several protected areas (Cabot et al. 1992, Parker et al. 1996).


It is mostly found in lowland humid forest up to 1,200 m, preferring intact closed-canopy forest with little undergrowth (Cabot et al. 1992, Parker et al. 1996). It is supposedly susceptible to forest fragmentation (each bird apparently requiring c.30 ha of primary forest), but there is a notable Paraguayan population in a small area of degraded forest, and it is seen regularly in secondary forest at one site in Argentina (Chebez 1990, Cabot et al. 1992, Lowen et al. 1996).


Current key threats are illegal hunting, urbanisation, industrialisation, agricultural expansion, colonisation and associated road-building (Dinerstein et al. 1995).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Clarify taxonomic validity of race pernambucensis. Survey known sites. Effectively protect remaining Atlantic forest sites.


Text account compilers
Symes, A., Benstead, P., Symes, A., Mansur, E., Capper, D., Sharpe, C J

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Tinamus solitarius. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2019.