Solitary Tinamou Tinamus solitarius


Justification of Red List category
This species qualifies as Near Threatened, as its population is in slow decline due to habitat loss and hunting.

Population justification
This species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996). Based on the recorded population densities of closely-related species (Tinamus tao: 1 individual/km2 and Crypturellus soui: 2 individuals/km2 in Peru (Terborgh et al. 1990)) and the area of  mapped range (c.1,070,000 km2), and assuming that the range is between 10.3% and 11.28% occupied, the population is estimated to fall within the band 110,000-241,000 individuals, roughly equating to 70,000 – 160,000 mature individuals. Therefore, the population is placed here in the band 50,000 - 200,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification

An analysis of forest loss from 2000 to 2012 found that forest within the species's range was lost at a rate equivalent to 10% over three generation lengths (Tracewski et al. 2016). The species is also threatened by hunting, and so is suspected to be declining at 15-25% over three generation lengths.

Distribution and population

Tinamus solitarius occurs in the Atlantic forest of east Brazil (Pernambuco to Rio Grande do Sul and inland to south Mato Grosso), south-east Paraguay and extreme north-east Argentina (Misiones) (Cabot et al. 1992, Sick 1993). There are two subspecies, with the north-east Brazil race pernambucensis having suffered a marked range contraction: not more than 100 individuals were estimated in 1971 (Cabot et al. 1992); however a recent study suggests this may not be a valid taxon (Amaral and Silveira 2004). The nominate race is rare throughout its range owing to hunting pressure and habitat loss, although it is still relatively common in several protected areas (Cabot et al. 1992, Parker et al. 1996).


It is mostly found in lowland humid forest up to 1,200 m, preferring intact closed-canopy forest with little undergrowth (Cabot et al. 1992, Parker et al. 1996). It is supposedly susceptible to forest fragmentation (each bird apparently requiring c.30 ha of primary forest), but there is a notable Paraguayan population in a small area of degraded forest, and it is seen regularly in secondary forest at one site in Argentina (Chebez 1990, Cabot et al. 1992, Lowen et al. 1996).


Current key threats are illegal hunting, urbanisation, industrialisation, agricultural expansion, colonisation and associated road-building (Dinerstein et al. 1995).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix I.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Clarify the taxonomic validity of subspecies pernambucensis. Survey known sites. Effectively protect remaining Atlantic forest sites.


Text account compilers
Mansur, E.F, Capper, D., Sharpe, C.J., Benstead, P., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Tinamus solitarius. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/solitary-tinamou-tinamus-solitarius on 30/11/2023.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 30/11/2023.