NT
Solitary Tinamou Tinamus solitarius



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2016 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Near Threatened A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,930,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50000-200000 poor estimated 2018
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 15-25 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 15-25 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.8 - - -

Population justification: This species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996). Based on the recorded population densities of closely-related species (Tinamus tao: 1 individual/km2 and Crypturellus soui: 2 individuals/km2 in Peru (Terborgh et al. 1990)) and the area of  mapped range (c.1,070,000 km2), and assuming that the range is between 10.3% and 11.28% occupied, the population is estimated to fall within the band 110,000-241,000 individuals, roughly equating to 70,000 – 160,000 mature individuals. Therefore, the population is placed here in the band 50,000 - 200,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification:

An analysis of forest loss from 2000 to 2012 found that forest within the species's range was lost at a rate equivalent to 10% over three generation lengths (Tracewski et al. 2016). The species is also threatened by hunting, and so is suspected to be declining at 15-25% over three generation lengths.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
Paraguay N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Paraguay Bosque Mbaracayú
Paraguay Arroyo Blanco
Argentina Parque Nacional Iguazú y alrededores
Argentina Parque Provincial Urugua-í
Argentina Parque Provincial Uruzú y Reserva Forestal San Jorge
Argentina Corredor Urugua-í Foerster
Argentina Parque Provincial Guardaparque Horacio Foerster
Argentina San Antonio
Argentina Sierra Morena
Argentina Alta cuenca del arroyo Alegría
Argentina Alta cuenca del arroyo Piray Guazú
Argentina Reserva Privada Yaguaroundí
Argentina Parque Provincial Piñalito y alrededores
Argentina Reserva de la Biósfera Yabotí
Argentina Parque Provincial Salto Encantado del Valle del Cuñá-Pirú y alrededores
Argentina Cerro Mártires y Barra Santa María
Argentina Parque Provincial Cruce Caballero
Argentina Montecarlo
Paraguay Ypané Medio
Paraguay Paso Curuzú
Paraguay Estancia Felicidad
Paraguay Ka'aguy Rory
Paraguay Morombi
Paraguay Serranías de San Joaquín
Paraguay Ybyturuzú
Paraguay Estancia Itabó
Paraguay Ypeti
Paraguay Limoy
Paraguay Reserva Itabó - Itaipú
Paraguay Parque Nacional Caazapá
Paraguay Tapyta
Paraguay Parque Nacional San Rafael
Paraguay Estancia Muxfeldt
Paraguay Cerro Guazú
Brazil Igarassu
Brazil Murici
Brazil Reserva Biológica de Pedra Talhada
Brazil Parque Estadual do Rio Doce
Brazil Sooretama / Linhares
Brazil Santa Teresa
Brazil Una
Brazil Serras das Lontras e do Javi
Brazil Reserva Biológica de Duas Bocas
Brazil Cafundó e Bananal do Norte
Brazil Serra do Tinguá
Brazil Ilha Grande
Brazil Parque Estadual das Lauráceas e Entorno
Brazil Campos Gerais do Paraná
Brazil Serra do Marumbi
Brazil Parque Estadual do Rio Guarani
Brazil Parque Nacional do Iguaçu
Brazil Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (entre Caraguatatuba e Picinguaba)
Brazil Corredor do Iguaçu
Brazil Área de Proteção Ambiental de Guaratuba
Brazil Salto do Piraí
Brazil Serra da Cantareira
Brazil Região de Blumenau
Brazil Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (entre Santos e São Sebastião)
Brazil Serra do Tabuleiro State Park
Brazil Ilhabela State Park (Parque Estadual de Ilhabela IBA)
Brazil Maciço Florestal de Paranapiacaba
Brazil Guaraqueçaba / Jacupiranga / Cananéia
Brazil Estação Ecológica de Juréia-Itatins
Brazil Parque Nacional de Itatiaia
Brazil Ilhas Comprida e Cananéia
Brazil Parque Estadual do Turvo
Brazil Serra da Bocaina / Paraty / Angra dos Reis
Brazil Alto Cariri
Brazil Região dos Aparados da Serra
Brazil Caratinga
Brazil São Francisco Xavier / Monte Verde

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Tinamus solitarius. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/09/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/09/2020.