EN
Sokoke Scops-owl Otus ireneae



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- B1ab(ii,iii,v) B1ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)
2012 Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)
2008 Endangered B1a+b(iii)
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type continent
Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 4,800 km2 medium
Number of locations 5 -
Severely fragmented? yes -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals good estimated 2000
Population trend decreasing good suspected 1998-2008
Generation length 3.7 years - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage of mature individuals in largest subpopulation 1-89% - - -

Population justification: In Arabuko-Sokoke, a population of c.1,000 pairs (stable between 1984 and 1998) occurs in c.220 km2 of forest. In the East Usambaras, there are c.97 km2 of suitable habitat and densities range from less than 1.5 pairs/km2 up to 3-4 pairs/km2, suggesting a population in the low hundreds. The total population is estimated to number at least 2,500 individuals and is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification: This species's population is suspected to be declining in line with habitat degradation within its range. Unsustainable removal of large Brachylaena trees, which were thought to be its main resource for nest-cavities, was suspected to be critical, but there may now be few if any of these trees remaining in Arabuko-Sokoke. Playback surveys in 2005 and 2008, and compared with data from 1993, suggest that the species may have undergone declines of 22.5 % in 16 years in Arabuko-Sokoke (Virani et al. 2010). Climate change could lead to a decline in suitable habitat of over 60% by 2080 (Monadjem et al. 2013), but this is considerably more than 3 generations for this species, and the likely overall rate of population decline over this time period has not been estimated.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Kenya extant native yes
Tanzania extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Kenya Arabuko-Sokoke Forest
Tanzania East Usambara Mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Otus ireneae. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/sokoke-scops-owl-otus-ireneae on 05/03/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 05/03/2024.