EN
Sokoke Pipit Anthus sokokensis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- B1ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(ii) B1ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(ii)
2012 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2008 Endangered B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,300 medium
Number of locations 11 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1600-3400 medium estimated 2015
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.7 - - -

Population justification: In Kenya, Arabuko-Sokoke Forest has been estimated to support c.13,000 individuals, but this number has now decreased and possibly only c. 5,500 individuals are present in Brachystegia woodland (Otieno et al. 2014). There are no estimates for Tanzanian populations, but the sites where the bird occurs are small, and most are very heavily degraded (N. Burgess in litt. 2007). The total population is therefore placed in the range band for 2,500-9,999 individuals. This equates to 1,667-3,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,600-3,400 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to the clearance and degradation of the species's forest habitat, mainly through charcoal burning, agricultural encroachment, logging and pole cutting. The likely rate of decline has not been estimated.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Kenya N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Kenya Arabuko-Sokoke Forest
Kenya Dakatcha Woodland
Kenya Dzombo Hill Forest
Kenya Gede Ruins National Monument
Kenya Kaya Gandini
Kenya Marenji Forest
Kenya Shimba Hills
Tanzania Bagamoyo District Coastal Forests
Tanzania Kisarawe District Coastal Forests
Tanzania Pande Game Reserve and Dondwe Coastal Forests
Tanzania Muheza District Coastal Forests
Tanzania Bagamoyo

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Anthus sokokensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/08/2020.