EW
Socorro Dove Zenaida graysoni



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Extinct in the Wild
2012 Extinct in the Wild
2010 Extinct in the Wild
2008 Extinct in the Wild
2004 Extinct in the Wild
2000 Extinct in the Wild
1996 Extinct in the Wild
1994 Extinct in the Wild
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass 192 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 0
Population trend not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.6 - - -

Population justification: Fortunately, aviculture has prevented the extinction of the species, with captive populations  held in around 30 institutions in the U.S.A., Europe and Mexico, with at least 70 institutions participating at some point in the captive breeding efforts since 1994 (J. E. Martínez-Gómez in litt. 2016). The European breeding programme for this endangered species has monitored the captive population for more than 30 years (J. E. Martínez-Gómez in litt. 2007). The captive population was thought to total several hundred birds, but hybridisation with Mourning Doves Z. macroura became a major problem in the U.S.A. in the 1990s (Martínez-Gómez et al. 2003), and it now appears that many of these U.S. birds are hybrids (J. E. Martínez-Gómez in litt. 1999, 2000, S. G. Stadler in litt. 2012). As a consequence of the occurrence of avian influenza in Europe in 2006, the Socorro Dove Project sent a total of 12 birds to Albuquerque Biological Park to form a second, independent reserve population nearer to the species's native country (S. G. Stadler in litt. 2012). The total captive population is currently estimated at approximately 150 individuals (J. E. Martínez-Gómez in litt. 2016). In 2013 and again in 2014 a number of birds were transferred to Mexico to form a national captive breeding flock ahead of efforts to eventually return the species to Socorro Island (H. Horblit in litt. 2013, J. E. Martínez-Gómez in litt. 2016).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Mexico N Extinct Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Mexico Islas Revillagigedo

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 950 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Ovis aries Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Zenaida graysoni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/12/2019.