Snowy Owl Bubo scandiacus


Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., ?ekercio?lu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13486.

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

BirdLife International. In prep.. European Red List of Birds. Deliverable to the European Commission (DG Environment) in 2021 under Service Contract ENV.D.3/SER/2018/0018.

Curk, T.; McDonald, T.; Zazelenchuk, D.; Weidensaul, S.; Brinker, D.; Huy, S.; Smith, N.; Miller, T.; Robillard A.; Gauthier, G.; Lecomte, N. 2018. Winter irruptive Snowy Owls (Bubo scandiacus) in North America are not starving. Canadian Journal of Zoology 96(6): 553-558.

Doyle, F. I.; Therrien, J-F.; Reid, D. G.; Gauthier, G.; Krebs, C. J. 2017. Seasonal Movements of Female Snowy Owls Breeding in the Western North American Arctic. Journal of Raptor Research 51(4): 428-438.

Holt, D. W., Larson, M. D., Smith, N., Evans, D. L. and Parmelee, D. F. 2020. Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus), version 1.0. In: Billerman, S. M. (ed.), Birds of the World, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY.

Holt, D. W., Maples, M. T., Petersen-Parret, J. L., Korti, M., Seidensticker, M. & Gray, K. 2009. Characteristics of Nest Mounds used by Snowy Owls in Barrow, Alaska, with Conservation and Management Implications. Ardea 97(4): 555-561.

Holt, W., Berkley, R., Deppe, C., Enríquez Rocha, P., Petersen, J.L., Rangel Salazar, J.L., Segars, K.P., Wood, K.L. and Garcia, E.F.J. 2017. Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

International Snowy Owl Working Group. 2010. International Snowy Owl Working Group, Resolution Document, Second meeting, Saskatoon February 2010.

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. Available at: (Accessed: 09 December 2021).

Marthinsen, G.; Wennerberg, L.; Solheim, R.; Lifjeld, J. T. 2009. No phylogeographic structure in the circumpolar snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus). Conserv. Genet. 10: 923-933.

Partners in Flight Science Committee. 2013. Population Estimates Database, version 2013. Available at: (Accessed: 09/07/2015).

Partners in Flight. 2019. Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2019. Available at:

Portenko, L. A. 1972. Die Schnee-Eule, Nyctea scandiaca. A. Ziemsen Verlag, Wittenberg Luterstadt.

Potapov, E.; Sale, R. 2013. Chapter 8 Numbers and Population Density. In: Potapov, E.; Sale, R. (ed.), The Snowy Owl, pp. 159-198. T & AD Poyser, London.

Rosenberg, K.V.; Kennedy, J.A.; Dettmers, R.; Ford, R.P.; Reynolds, D.; Alexander, J.D.; Beardmore, C.J.; Blancher, P.J.; Bogart, R.E.; Butcher, G.S.; Camfield, A.F.; Couturier, A.; Demarest, D.W.; Easton, W.E.; Giocomo, J.J.; Keller, R.H.; Mini, A.E.; Panjabi, A.O.; Pashley, D.N.; Rich, T.D.; Ruth, J.M.; Stabins, H.; Stanton, J.; Will, T. 2016. Partners in Flight Landbird Conservation Plan: 2016 Revision for Canada and Continental United States. Partners in Flight Science Committee.

Santonja, P.; Mestre, I.; Weidensaul, S.; Brinker, D.; Huy, S.; Smith, N.; McDonald, T.; Blom, M.; Zazelenchuck, D.; Weber, D.; Gauthier, G. 2019. Age composition of winter irruptive Snowy Owls in North America. Ibis 161(1): 211-215.

Solheim, R. 1994. Snøugle Nyctea scandiaca. In: Gjershaug, J. O.; Thingstad, P. G.; Eldøy, S.; Byrkjeland, S. (ed.), Norsk fugleatlas, pp. 272. NOF, Klæbu.

Solheim, R. 2004.. 30 år uten snøugle. Vår fuglefauna 27(102–108).

Therrien, J. F.; Weidensaul, S.; Brinker, D.; Huy, S.; Miller, T.; Jacobs, E.; Weber, D.; McDonald, T.; Lanzone, M.; Smith, N.; Lecomte, N. 2017. Winter use of a highly diverse suite of habitats by irruptive snowy owls. Northeastern Naturalist 24(sp7).

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Bubo scandiacus. Downloaded from on 14/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 14/08/2022.