Snares Penguin Eudyptes robustus


Amey, J. M., McAllister, A. K., Houston, D. M. and Tennyson, A. J. D. 2001. Census of the Snares crested penguin breeding population. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28(4): 432–433.

Crawford, R.; Ellenberg, U.; Frere, E.; Hagen, C.; Baird, K.; Brewin, P.; Crofts, S.; Glass, J.; Mattern, T.; Pompert, J. 2017. Tangled and drowned: A global review of penguin bycatch in fisheries. Endangered Species Research 34: 373–396.

Ellis, S.; Croxall, J.P.; Cooper, J. 1998. Penguin conservation assessment and management plan: report from the workshop held 8-9 September 1996, Cape Town, South Africa. IUCN/SSC, Apple Valley, USA.

Forest & Bird. 2014. New Zealand Seabirds: Sites at Sea, Seaward Extensions, Pelagic Areas. The Royal Forest & Bird Protection Society of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand. Available at:

Hiscock, J. A. and Chilvers, B. L. 2016. Snares crested penguins Eudyptes robustus population estimates 2000 – 2013. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 40(1): 1–6.

Marchant, S.; Higgins, P. J. 1990. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, 1: ratites to ducks. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Mattern, T. 2013. Snares Penguin Eudyptes robustus. In: García Borboroglu, P. G. and Boersma P. D. (eds), Biology and Conservation of the World’s penguins, University of Washington Press, Seattle U.S.A..

Mattern, T., Houston, D., Lalas, C., Setiawan, A. N., and Davis, L. S. 2009. Diet composition, continuity in prey availability and marine habitat - keystones to population stability in the Snares Penguin (Eudyptes robustus). Emu 109: 204-213.

Miskelly, C. M. 1997. Biological notes on the Western Chain, Snares Islands, 1984-85 and 1985-86. Conservation Advisory Science Notes No. 144, Department of Conservation, Wellington Available at:

Morrison, K. W.; Sagar, P. F. 2014. First record of interbreeding between a Snares crested (Eudyptes robustus) and erect-crested penguin (E. sclateri). Notornis 61: 109-112.

Morrison, K.W.; Battley, P.F.; Sagar, P.M.; Thompson, D.R. 2015. Population dynamics of Eastern Rockhopper Penguins on Campbell Island in relation to sea surface temperature 1942–2012: current warming hiatus pauses a long-term decline. Polar Biology 38: 163-177.

Thompson, D. A. 2016. Penguins reveal unknown swimming talents. Available at:

Further resources

IUCN SSC Penguin Specialist Group

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Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Eudyptes robustus. Downloaded from on 23/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 23/10/2021.