Snares Penguin Eudyptes robustus


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable D2
2012 Vulnerable D2
2010 Vulnerable D2
2008 Vulnerable D2
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 15 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 4,180,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1 medium
Number of locations 1 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 63000 good estimated 2010
Population trend Stable medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.1 - - -

Population justification:

The population was estimated at 23,250 breeding pairs in 1985-1986; 19,000 on North-East Island, 3,500 on Broughton and 750 on the Western Chain islets (Marchant and Higgins 1990). In 2000, 23,683 pairs were counted on North-East Island and 4,737 on Broughton Island, while an additional 381 pairs were estimated to breed on the Western Chain (Amey et al. 2001). The 2008 survey produced counts of 16,470 pairs on North-East Island and 3,375 pairs on Broughton, suggesting that the species had experienced a poor breeding year in line with that observed for the other seabird species present. Repeat surveys in 2010 found 21,167 and 4,358 pairs. A survey in 2013 found 20,716 pairs on North-East Island and 4,433 pairs on Broughton (Hiscock and Chilvers 2016), suggesting that there are at least c.50,300 mature individuals. Assuming that 80% of adult birds engage in breeding each year there should be a total of c.63,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Surveys suggest that the population on North East and Broughton Island is stable (Amey et al. 2001, Mattern et al. 2009, Hiscock and Chilvers 2016). 

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina V Extant
Australia V Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) V Extant
New Zealand N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
New Zealand Snares (eastern islands)
New Zealand Western Chain

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subantarctic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 70 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Medium Impact: 6
Indirect ecosystem effects
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Eudyptes robustus. Downloaded from on 21/09/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 21/09/2018.