LC
Smew Mergellus albellus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 17,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 34,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.7 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.130,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 9,200-17,600 pairs, which equates to 18,300-35,200 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is suspected to be decreasing however some populations are increasing or the trend is not known (Wetlands International 2015). The population is suspected to be much affected by availability of nest sites in suitable habitat. Populations are also subject to hunting pressure during migration and have been affected by pollution from oil spills (del Hoyo et al. 1992). In Europe the population size is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Libya V Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Myanmar V Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories V Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA V Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Varvara Reservoir
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Haapsalu-Noarootsi bays
Estonia Suur Väin strait
Estonia Pärnu bay
Estonia Sõrve peninsula
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island
Estonia Lahepera lake
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Bulgaria Ovtcharitsa Reservoir
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Strejesti reservoir
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia River Drava
Sweden Taavavuoma
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden Dannemora
Sweden Bay of Torslanda
Sweden Bay of Kil
Sweden Fjord of Kungsbacka
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Slowinski National Park
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Niepolomice forest
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Evros delta
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Lake Doïrani
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Lepelaarplassen
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Steile Bank and Mokkebank
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
Netherlands Lake Gooimeer
Netherlands Lake Eemmeer
Netherlands IJssel: Deventer - Zwolle
Netherlands IJssel: Zwolle - Ketelmeer
Netherlands Rijn: Heteren - Amerongen
Netherlands Waal: Ewijk - Waardenburg
Netherlands Alde Feanen
Netherlands Lake Fluessen, Vogelhoek and Morra
Netherlands Rottige Meenthe and Brandemeer
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen
Netherlands Gelderse Poort
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Alajoki
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Kitka lake
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Veittiaapa-Ristiaapa
Finland Karunginjärvi lake
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Finland Kevo
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Hungary Danube reach between Gönyû and Szob
Hungary Béda–Karapancsa
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Ponoiskaya depression
Russia (European) Yamantau mountain
Russia (European) Verkhnevisherski mountain
Russia (European) Adovo-Chugrumski wetland
Russia (European) Iremel'ski mountain
Russia (European) Kivach Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Kenozer'ye
Ukraine Sasyk lake
Ukraine Burshtyns'ke reservoir
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman
Ukraine Kanivs'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Kanivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Dnestr valley between Staryj Martyniv and Marynopil' villages
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Boucle de Moisson
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Plaine du Forez
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Cap Gris-nez
France Bonne Anse
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Castle Loch, Lochmaben
United Kingdom Chew Valley
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom Lea Valley
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom South-west London Waterbodies
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom North Wales Coast
United Kingdom Breydon Water
Italy Po Delta
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Lake Viverone
Italy Ticino river
Italy Lake Bracciano and surrounding areas
Italy Lake Garda
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Italy River Po from Dora Baltea mouth to Scrivia mouth
Italy Colostrai pool
Italy Iseo peatlands
Italy Litorale Romano
Czechia Nove Mlyny middle reservoir
Sweden River Dal – Håvran
Romania Black Sea
Denmark Vestamager and adjacent sea area
Denmark Karrebæk, Dybsø and Avnø Fjords (coasts and islands)
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt
Denmark Maribo lakes
Denmark Arresø
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Georgia Kolkheti
Serbia Carska bara
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain
Serbia Labudovo okno
Serbia Derdap gorge
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Poland Puck Bay
Germany Putzarer See, Galenbecker See, Brohmer Berge
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Mühlenberger Loch
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Ammersee
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Weser valley near Stolzenau and Landesbergen
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Alfsee
Germany Dümmer
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Heerter See
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Vogelfreistätte Alter and Neuer See
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Reservoir near Affoldern
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Rhine flats Karlsruhe - Rheinsheim
Germany Rhine flats Sasbach - Wittenweier
Germany Rhine flats Nonnenweier - Kehl
Germany Rhine flats Kehl-Helmlingen
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Kalmar – Pataholm
Sweden Blekinge Archipelago
Estonia Irbe strait
Latvia Irbe strait
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Energodar)
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop - Ketelmeer
Iraq Razzaza Lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Voshmigir dam
Russia (European) Lake Lacha
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Estonia Võrtsjärv
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Tagamõisa peninsula
Estonia Väinameri
Russia (European) Kuloy river
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake
Latvia Daugava river at Kaibala
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Seda marsh
Latvia Aiviekste flood-plain
Latvia Dviete flood-plain
Latvia Uzava lowland
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Babite lake
Latvia Svete lower reaches
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Gorni Dabnik-Telish Reservoir
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Forêts du Perche
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Vallée de l'Aube, de la Superbe et Marigny
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Brenne centrale
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Mars sur Allier
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Etang de Lindre
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Etang des Landes
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Camargue
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Saône
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Etangs d'Argonne
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Zingeika lake
Russia (Central Asian) Reservoir near river Sukhaya
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Mandesarskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'ko-Solenoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Karamys lake
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Ilmensky zapovednik
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nowruzlu and Ghazanlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Incheh Borun lake and marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Uzbekistan Dengizkul Lake
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Turkmenistan Karabogaz
Kazakhstan Karasuk
Sweden Bay of Rynninge
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Sweden Lake Solgen
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Sweden Coastal area of Oskarshamn
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
Sweden Bay of Strandstugu
Sweden Lake Skedviken
Sweden Stornäset – Hörningsholm
Sweden Vindel Mountains (including Lake Tärna)
Poland Pasleka river valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Druzno lake
Poland Luknajno lake
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Slowinska Site
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Poland Pilica River Valley
Poland Warmia Site
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Poland Nielisz Site
Turkmenistan Mergen
Italy Lake Candia
Poland Pomeranian bay
Netherlands Lake Oudegaasterbrekken
Russia (European) Yuzhskoe lake-land
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Netherlands Oostelijke Vechtplassen
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands Deelen
Netherlands De Wieden
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes
Netherlands Lake Veluwemeer
Netherlands Ketelmeer & Vossemeer
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Germany Selenter See
Germany Traveförde and Dassower See
Germany Leine valley Koldingen-Ruthe
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Schlei
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Germany Warder See
Germany Kühren Teich and Lanker See
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Ueckermünder Heide
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Großer and Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden with Schmachter See and Nonnensee
Germany Havelseen Werder-Potsdam
Germany Untermain
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Pferdemosel und Kiesweiher (in Louxembourg: Haff Réimech)
Luxembourg Haff Réimech
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Argeş reservoir
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Limanu - Herghelia
Romania Olt valley
Romania Rogojeşti reservoir - Bucecea
Romania Iazurile de pe Văile Ibănesei - Başeului - Podrigăi
Romania Iezerul Călăraşi
Romania Lacurile Fălticeni
Romania Ilfov reservoir
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Poland Swidwie Site
Poland Kamien Lagoon and Dziwna River
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Poland Liwiec river valley
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Slawskie Lakes
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Nysa reservoir
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Turek Site
Poland Kwiecewo Site
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Kazakhstan Salmanykol lake
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Moldova Costești – Stânca Lake
Moldova Dniester River between Naslavcea - Soroca
Russia (Asian) Lowland swamps in the valley of Tungur and Nenyuga rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Kondo-Alymskaya
Norway Vikna
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Norway Reisa
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Ulvsund, Grønsund, Farø Fjord and Fanefjord
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Kunda
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Shaglyteniz Lake and marshes
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Netherlands Rijntakken
Netherlands Veluwerandmeren
Sweden Påkketan
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Sweden Muddus
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Sweden Bay of Svensksund
China (mainland) Huanghua coast (Cangzhou)
Serbia Kljucko Podunavlje
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Serbia Srebrno jezero - Golubac

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Mergellus albellus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/06/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/06/2020.