LC
Smew Mergellus albellus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 17,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 34,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.7 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.130,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 9,200-17,600 pairs, which equates to 18,300-35,200 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is suspected to be decreasing however some populations are increasing or the trend is not known (Wetlands International 2015). The population is suspected to be much affected by availability of nest sites in suitable habitat. Populations are also subject to hunting pressure during migration and have been affected by pollution from oil spills (del Hoyo et al. 1992). In Europe the population size is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Libya V Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Myanmar V Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories V Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan (China) N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA V Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Võrtsjärv
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Kitka lake
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Litokaira
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Voshmigir dam
Iraq Razzaza Lake (Bahr Al Milh)
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Karasuk
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Latvia Irbe strait
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon
Luxembourg Haff Réimech
Netherlands Gelderse Poort (superseded 24/5/2107)
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop-Ketelmeer (superseded 24/5/2017)
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Lepelaarplassen
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Norway Reisa
Norway Vikna
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Kamien Lagoon and Dziwna River
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Puck Bay
Poland Slowinska Site
Poland Slowinski National Park
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Romania Argeş reservoir
Romania Black Sea
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Iazurile de pe Văile Ibănesei - Başeului - Podrigăi
Romania Iezerul Călăraşi
Romania Ilfov reservoir
Romania Lacurile Fălticeni
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Limanu - Herghelia
Romania Olt valley
Romania Rogojeşti reservoir - Bucecea
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Russia (Asian) Lowland swamps in the valley of Tungur and Nenyuga rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Ilmensky zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Kondo-Alymskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Russia (European) Adovo-Chugrumski wetland
Russia (European) Iremel'ski mountain
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Kivach Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Kuloy river
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Ponoiskaya depression
Russia (European) Verkhnevisherski mountain
Russia (European) Yamantau mountain
Russia (European) Yuzhskoe lake-land
Serbia Derdap gorge
Serbia Labudovo okno
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain
Slovenia River Drava
Sweden Bay of Kil
Sweden Bay of Strandstugu
Sweden Blekinge Archipelago
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Kalmar – Mönsterås
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden Lake Skedviken
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Stornäset – Hörningsholm
Sweden Taavavuoma
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Energodar)
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman
Ukraine Sasyk lake
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom South-west London Waterbodies
Uzbekistan Dengizkul Lake
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Mergellus albellus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/12/2017.