LC
Silver Gull Larus novaehollandiae



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Larus novaehollandiae (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously split as L. novaehollandiae and L. scopulinus following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 20,600,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 20,900,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.5 - - -

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some subpopulations have unknown trends (Delany and Scott 2006).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Australia N Extant Yes
Fiji V Extant Yes
Indonesia V Extant
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea V Extant
Vanuatu V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
New Caledonia (to France) Îlots du Nord-Ouest
New Caledonia (to France) Îlots du lagon sud
New Caledonia (to France) District de Wetr à Lifou
Australia Swan Bay and Port Phillip Bay Islands
Australia Troubridge Island
Australia Lake Eyre
Australia Gulf St Vincent
Australia Bramble Cay
New Zealand Campbell Islands
New Zealand Trio Islands
New Zealand Takapourewa Stephens Island
New Zealand Ruamaahua Aldermen Islands
New Zealand Motunau
New Zealand Marotere Chickens Islands
New Zealand Manawatawhi Three Kings Islands
New Zealand Snares (eastern islands)
New Zealand Main Auckland Island
New Zealand Solander Islands
New Zealand Muriwai
New Zealand Bay of Plenty Islands
New Zealand Banks Peninsula
New Zealand Disappointment Island
New Zealand Catlins Coast
New Zealand Enderby Group
New Zealand Mercury Islands
New Zealand Forty Fours Motuhara
New Zealand Ka Whata Tu o Rakihouia/Kaikoura
New Zealand Mangere
New Zealand Mokohinau Islands
New Zealand Open Bay Islands
New Zealand Punakaiki
New Zealand Repanga Cuvier island
New Zealand Rangatira South East Island
New Zealand Ruapuke
New Zealand Southern Titi Muttonbird Islands
New Zealand Star Keys Motuhope
New Zealand The Brothers Islands
New Zealand The Pyramid Tarakoikoia
New Zealand The Sisters Rangitatahi
New Zealand Tuku
New Zealand Taiaroa Head
New Zealand North Otago
New Zealand Otago Peninsula
New Zealand Rotorua Sulphur Point
New Zealand Moeraki Katiki Point

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Mustela erminea Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Larus novaehollandiae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/10/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/10/2022.