CR
Siberian Crane Leucogeranus leucogeranus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A3bcd A3bcd+4bcd A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd; D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Critically Endangered A3bcd
2016 Critically Endangered A3bcd+4bcd
2015 Critically Endangered A3bcd+4bcd
2013 Critically Endangered A3bcd+4bcd
2012 Critically Endangered A3bcd+4bcd
2010 Critically Endangered A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2009 Critically Endangered A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2008 Critically Endangered
2007 Critically Endangered
2006 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,290,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,040,000 medium
Number of locations 2-5 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals good estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 80-100 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-70 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 95-99 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated at 3,500-4,000 individuals, based on a count of 3,750 at Poyang Lake in 2008 (Yu Changhao et al. 2008) and counts of 3,400 at Momoge in May 2011 and at Poyang in early 2012. The western subpopulation numbers only a single individual aside from reintroduced birds.

Trend justification: This species' population is suspected to have decreased rapidly over the last three generations, in line with levels of wetland conversion (for development and agriculture), hunting (especially on passage) and disturbance. Construction of the Three Gorges Dam has changed the hydrological pattern of the lower Yangtze River, resulting in lower water levels in winter. Poyang Lake thus drains more rapidly into the Yangtze during the low water period. In addition, as of 2001, over 9,600 dams had been constructed on the five rivers feeding into Poyang Lake (more are still being constructed). As a result of water diversions and climate fluctuations, floods and droughts are increasingly frequent at Poyang. In response, it is probable that a dam will be constructed at the outlet to Poyang Lake to stabilize winter water levels. Operation of its sluice gates has not been determined, but early proposals called for significantly increased water levels through the winter season, which would make most or all current foraging areas for the cranes inaccessible, perhaps causing extremely rapid declines in the next three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Possibly Extinct Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
India N Possibly Extinct Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Japan V Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Possibly Extinct Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
South Korea V Extant
Turkmenistan N Possibly Extinct Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Afghanistan Ab-i-Istada
Afghanistan Salang Kotal
Afghanistan Pech and Waygal valleys
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
China (mainland) Huzhong Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Lianhuanhu Waterbird Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qixing He Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qihulin He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Melmeg (Momege) Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Wolong Hu (Xi Paozi)
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Mangui
China (mainland) Genhe
China (mainland) Dalai Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Huihe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tumuji Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Holqin Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Beidaihe
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Longgan Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
Mongolia Telmen Lake
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Mongolia Mongol Daguur
Mongolia Buir Lake
Pakistan Pugri Lake
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands
Russia (Asian) Chelomdzha valley and Kava-Chelomdzha interfluve
Russia (Asian) Khanka plain
Russia (Asian) Kolyma delta
Russia (Asian) Angara river source
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river
Russia (Asian) Argun' river
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes
Russia (Asian) San-Yuryakh
Russia (Asian) Keremesit-Sundrun watershed
Russia (Asian) Abyy lowland
Russia (Asian) Kolyma-Alazeya lowland
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande
Russia (Central Asian) Kunovatski
Kazakhstan Zharsor-Urkash Salt Lakes
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Amankaragay Forest
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Atyazh lakes
Mongolia Khukh Lake
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Mongolia Turgen Tsagaan, Zegst, Tuulaitiyn Burd Lakes
China (mainland) Fang Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Huanzidong
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve
Russia (Asian) Troitskoye lake
Russia (Asian) Aginskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Bain-Tsaganskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Middle Onon
Russia (Central Asian) Kondo-Alymskaya
Russia (Asian) Lowland swamps in the valley of Tungur and Nenyuga rivers
Russia (Asian) Kytalyk
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Iran, Islamic Republic of Akh Gol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e-Moghan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Azerbaijan Araz-Behremtepe

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major non-breeding
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Leucogeranus leucogeranus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/10/2021.