Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
The global population size has not been quantified, though in Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 100-500 breeding pairs, equating to 300-1,500 individuals (BirdLife International 2004), with Europe forming <5% of the global range. The population in Russia has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs (Brazil 2009).
The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The trend of the tiny European population is not known (BirdLife International 2015).
This species breeds in the boreal and subarctic, principally along the northern limits of coniferous and deciduous forests, in valleys, often close to riverbanks in dense tangles of bushes and trees such as willow (Salix). It is also found in spruce (Picea) taiga, and on mountains to the tree-line in sparse spruce and birch (Betula) woodland. The breeding season is from June to August. The nest is a compact cup of twigs, moss, leaves and plant stems, lined with fine grasses and hairs and built in the fork of a low tree or in a thick shrub. It lays four to six eggs. The diet consists mostly of insects, on which the young are fed on as well. The species is migratory with the entire population wintering in central and eastern China and Korea (Hatchwell 2016).
As a northern breeding species it is likely vulnerable to the effects of climate change.
Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species within its European range.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitoring of this species should be implemented to detect any population changes.
Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Symes, A., Ashpole, J
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Prunella montanella. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2022.