Short-toed Snake-eagle Circaetus gallicus


Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., ?ekercio?lu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13486.

BirdLife International. In prep.. European Red List of Birds. Deliverable to the European Commission (DG Environment) in 2021 under Service Contract ENV.D.3/SER/2018/0018.

Brown, L.H., Urban, E.K. and Newman, K. 1982. The Birds of Africa, Volume I. Academic Press, London.

del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J. (eds). 1994. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 2: New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Derlink, M., Wernham, C., Bertoncelj, I., Kovács, A., Saurola, P., Duke, G., Movalli, P. and Vrezec, A. 2018. A review of raptor and owl monitoring activity across Europe: its implications for capacity building towards pan-European monitoring. Bird Study 65: S4-S20.

Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. 2001. Raptors of the World. Christopher Helm, London.

Isenmann, P., Hering, J., Brehme, S., Essghaier, M., Etayeb, K., Bourass, E., & Azafzaf, H. 2016. Oiseaux de Libye. Birds of Libya. SEOF/MNHN, Paris.

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. Available at: (Accessed: 09 December 2021).

Keller, V., Herrando, S., Vo?íšek, P., Franch, M., Kipson, M., Milanesi, P., Martí, D., Anton, M., Klva?ová, A., Kalyakin, M.V., Bauer, H.-G. and Foppen, R.P.B. 2020. European Breeding Bird Atlas 2: Distribution, Abundance and Change. European Bird Census Council & Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Martinez, J. E., Zuberogoitia, I., Jimenez-Franco, M. V., Manosa, S. and Calvo, J. F. 2016. Spatio-temporal variations in mortality causes of two migratory forest raptors in Spain. European Journal of Wildlife Research 62: 109-118.

North African Birds. 2014. Trafic d’oiseaux sur Internet en Algérie et au Maroc. Available at: (Accessed: 03-01-2020).

RSPB. 2017. Where eagles die. Legal Eagle 81: 23.

Snow, D.W. and Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

SOIB. 2020. State of India’s Birds factsheet: Short-toed Snake Eagle Circaetus gallicus. Available at: (Accessed: 18/06/2021).

STRIX. 2012. Developing and testing the methodology for assessing and mapping the sensitivity of migratory birds to wind energy development. BirdLife International, Cambridge.

Thiollay, J.-M. 2007. Raptor population decline in West Africa. Ostrich 78(2): 405-413.

Tucker, G.M. and Heath, M.F. 1994. Birds in Europe: Their Conservation Status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Vansteelant, W. M. G., Wehrmann, J., Engelen, D., Jansen, J., Verhelst, B., Benjumea, R., Cavailles, S., Kaasiku, T., Hoekstra, B. and de Boer, F. 2019. Accounting for differential migration strategies between age groups to monitor raptor population dynamics in the eastern Black Sea flyway. Ibis 162(2): 356-372.

Further resources

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Circaetus gallicus. Downloaded from on 03/02/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 03/02/2023.