Short-toed Snake-eagle Circaetus gallicus


Taxonomic source(s)
Clark, W.S. 1999. Plumage differences and taxonomic status of three similar Circaetus snake-eagles. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 119: 56-59.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2006 Least Concern
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 58,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 48,800,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50000-99999 poor suspected 2021
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.93 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 9,900-16,000 breeding pairs, equating to 19,800-31,900 mature individuals (BirdLife International in prep.). Europe forms approximately 34% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 58,200-93,800 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. It is placed in the band 50,000-99,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population historically suffered marked declines in northern and central Europe, and it is suspected that these declines are ongoing (Keller et al. 2020). However, range expansions have occurred in southern and eastern parts of Europe (Keller et al. 2020), and the European population is now thought to be increasing (BirdLife International in prep.). An increase has also been reported in the number of mature individuals migrating along the eastern Black Sea coast (Vansteelant et al. 2019). Outside of Europe, declines have been reported in West Africa (Thiollay 2007) and in India (SOIB 2020). Overall, the global population is suspected to be stable.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes Yes
Austria V Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium V Extant
Benin N Extant Yes
Bhutan V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Cambodia V Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Estonia V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany V Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes Yes
Kenya V Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes Yes
Laos V Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho V Extant
Liberia N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Malaysia V Extant
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Sierra Leone V Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes Yes
Tanzania V Extant Yes
Thailand V Extant Yes
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes Yes
Uganda V Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes Yes
Vietnam V Extant
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Gibraltar (to UK) Rock of Gibraltar
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Serbia Resava gorge
Serbia Zlot gorge--Dubasnica
North Macedonia Babuna gorge, Topolka gorge, and Crn Kamen
North Macedonia River Bregalnica
North Macedonia River Crna gorge
North Macedonia Demir Kapija Gorge
North Macedonia River Radika catchment
Azerbaijan Turianchai
Azerbaijan Alty Agach area
Azerbaijan Gekchai Bozdag mountains
Azerbaijan Mount Dalidag
Azerbaijan Mount Ilandag
Azerbaijan Kusari (Gusari) area
Azerbaijan Lachin area
Azerbaijan Negram mountains
Azerbaijan Ordubad area
Azerbaijan Sheki upland
Azerbaijan Zuvand upland
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Belarus Balota Zvaniec
Belarus Asvieja
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Kaz'jany
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Slitere and Zilie kalni
Latvia Lielais and Pemmas bogs
Latvia Zabolotje bogs
Latvia Pededze forest and Parabaine
Portugal South-west coast of Portugal
Portugal Malcata mountains
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Yatata
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
Bulgaria Lomovete
Bulgaria Ropotamo Complex
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Kamchia Complex
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Ponor
Bulgaria Krumovitza
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Madzharovo
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Strandzha
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Suha Reka
Bulgaria Harsovska Reka
Bulgaria Derventski Heights
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Romania Niculitel and Babadag forest
Romania Hagieni forest
Romania Trascău Mountains
Romania Domogled - Cernei valley
Slovenia Julijci
Slovenia Karst
Turkey Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Janów forests
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Augustów forest
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Central Rodopi mountains and Nestos valley
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Mount Cholomontas
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Mount Grammos
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece Mount Olympos
Greece Douskon and Kasidiaris mountains, Delvinaki lakes and Gormou valley
Greece Tymfi (Gkamila) and Smolikas mountains
Greece Central Zagori and mount Mitsikeli
Greece Antichasia mountains and Meteora
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Lower Kalamas gorge
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Vardousia
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Mount Pilio
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Lake Dystos
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Vouraïkos gorge and Kalavryta
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mount Kerkis, Samos
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Kythira island
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Paramythia mountains
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Asvestades - Vrysika area
Greece Mati wetland of Tyrnavos
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Hungary Börzsöny
Hungary Vértes
Hungary Zemplén Mountains
Hungary Bükk
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Aggtelek Karst
Hungary Gerecse
Hungary Mátra
Hungary Csanád Pusztas
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Khoper river near Il'men' lake
Russia (European) Smolenskoye Poozer'ye
Russia (European) Oktyabr'ski forest
Russia (European) Steppe valley of Sakmara river
Russia (European) Mountain valley of Sakmara river
Russia (European) Buzulukski forest
Russia (European) Karaichevski forest
Russia (European) Vorono-Khoperski area
Russia (European) Kraka Mountain
Russia (European) Mordovian P. G. Smidovich Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Nerussa - Desna woodland
Russia (European) Voronezhski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Khrenovski forest
Russia (European) Bereznyagovski forest
Russia (European) Voroninski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Kulikovski forest
Russia (European) Tsninski Forest
Russia (European) Upper Voronezh forest
Russia (European) Akhmet-Skala ridge
Russia (European) Gavan'skie oak-forest
Russia (European) Kalachskaya Loop of Don River
Russia (European) Danilovski forest
Russia (European) Rubezhnoye forest
Russia (European) Secretevskiye sands
Russia (European) Bekovskoye forest
Russia (European) Kuznetski forest
Russia (European) Kalitvenski forest
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Vad river
Russia (European) Sokino
Russia (European) Rasskazan' lake and flood-plain of Khoper river
Russia (European) Kaluzhskiye Zaseki Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Bel'skaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Maly Nakas ridge
Russia (European) Irendyk ridge
Russia (European) Stepan Rasin Rock
Spain Ancares mountains
Spain Muniellos
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Gistreo and Coto mountain ranges
Spain Central ranges of the Cantabric mountains
Spain Riaño
Spain Fuentes Carrionas
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges
Spain La Cabrera mountain range
Spain Montes Aquilanos range
Spain Oña and Tesla mountain ranges
Spain La Losa-Orduña (Salvada mountain range)
Spain Sobrón canyon
Spain Izki mountains
Spain Gredos and Candelario mountain ranges
Spain Duratón canyon
Spain River Lobos canyon
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias
Spain Alto Lozoya-La Pedriza
Spain El Pardo-Viñuelas
Spain River Mundo and river Segura canyons
Spain Monfragüe
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges
Spain La Demanda mountains
Spain Urbión and Cebollera Mountain Ranges
Spain San Mauricio-Bohí-Beret
Spain Alt Pallars
Spain Cerdaña
Spain Guara mountain range
Spain Boumort mountains
Spain Cadí mountains
Spain Zuera mountains
Spain Los Monegros (South)
Spain Mountains of Barcelona
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Valdurrios-Serreta Negra and Los Rincones mountain ranges
Spain Lower course of the river Huerva
Spain Moncayo mountain range
Spain Pass of Beceite-Turmell mountain
Spain Morella pass
Spain Peñagolosa
Spain Turia canyon and Los Serranos
Spain Rivers Cabriel and Júcar canyons
Spain Moratalla mountain range
Spain Guadalentín saltmarshes
Spain Hoya de Guadix
Spain Sierra Pelada mountain range
Spain Sierra Morena de Sevilla
Spain Mountain ranges of Cordoba
Spain La Janda
Spain Tarifa
Spain Bujeo, Ojén, del Niño and Blanquilla mountain ranges
Spain Cabras, Aljibe and Montecoche mountain range
Spain Mountain ranges of Ronda, Bermeja and Crestellina
Spain Prelittoral mountain ranges of Granada
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain River Moros
Spain River Cega-Tierra de Pinares-Cantalejo
Spain Valdegovía-Arcena mountain range
Spain Burete, Cambrón and Espuña mountain ranges
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains
Spain La Almenara mountain range-Cape Cope
Spain Torrecilla and Gigante mountain ranges
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Campo de Argañán
Spain Tietar valley
Spain María mountain range-Los Vélez
Spain Ceuta
Spain Lower course of the river Matarraña-Ribarroja
Spain Enguera mountain range-La Canal de Navarrés
Spain Alcubierre and Sigena mountain ranges
Spain Sierra de Aracena
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Polis'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Crimean Nature Reserve
Ukraine Forests in Dnipro and Desna valleys
Ukraine Bondar marsh
Ukraine Syra Pogonya mire
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Ukraine Gorgany
Ukraine Orikhivski lake-system
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Gorges de la Sioule
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Montagne de la Serre
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Gorges de la Truyère
France Les Couzes Nord
France Les Couzes Sud
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Champ de Tir du Poteau
France Haute Soule : Forêt des Arbailles
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau
France Pic de l'Estibet et Mondragon
France Col de Lizarrieta
France Vallée de la Nive des Aldudes-Col de Lindux
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Arjuzanx
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Arrière Côte de Dijon et de Beaune
France Brenne centrale
France Queue de Brenne : Etang des Loges, Grand et Petit Mez
France Brenne: Forêt de la Petite-Brenne
France Brenne: Forêt de Lancosme
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Gorges de la Dordogne
France Montagne de la Clape
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Hautes Corbières
France Basses Corbières
France Gorges de la Vis et cirque de Navacelles
France Massif des Albères
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Puig Carlit et environs
France Gorges du Gardon
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Minervois
France Gorges du Rieutord-Fage-Cagnasses
France Massif du Madres et Mont Coronat
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Montagnes de Marcou, de l'Espinouse et du Caroux
France Vallées du Lis et de la Pique
France Vallée de Melles, cols d'Aoueran et d'Artisagou et Mont Vallier
France Zones rupestres du Tarasconnais et massif d'Aston
France Gorges de la Frau et Belestat
France Gorges du Tarn et de la Jonte
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
France Camargue
France Crau
France Chaîne des Alpilles
France Montagne Sainte-Victoire
France Massif du Petit Lubéron
France Plateau de Valensole
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Bois des Ayes
France Bois du Chapitre
France Bec de Crigne
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Préalpes de Grasse
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Bois de Palayson, du Rouet et de Malvoisin
France Le Pinail, Forêt de Moulière et bois du Défens
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais de la rive nord
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Forêt de Saou
France Col de l'Escrinet
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
France Plaine du Forez
France Parc National de la Vanoise
Italy Antigorio and Formazza valleys
Italy Val Grande
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Susa and Chisone valleys
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Maritime Alps
Italy Ligurian Alps
Italy Grigne
Italy Alto Garda Bresciano
Italy Piave river
Italy Carso
Italy River Cecina middle valley
Italy Farma valley
Italy Uccellina mountains, Trappola marshes and Ombrone mouth
Italy Sibillini mountains
Italy Lake Bracciano and surrounding areas
Italy Tolfa hills
Italy Lepini mountains
Italy Matese
Italy Mount Cervati
Italy Gargano promontory
Italy Murge
Italy Gravine
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Costa Viola
Italy Lake Bolsena
Italy Ausoni and Aurunci mountains
Italy Arezzo heathlands
Italy Calvana mountains
Italy Mount Conero
Italy Crete Senesi
Italy Carniche pre-Alps
Italy Biviere and Plain of Gela
Italy Argentario
Italy Middle valley of Tagliamento river
Italy Finalese
Albania Lake Butrinti
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Meskheti
Serbia Valjevske mountains
Serbia Tara mountain
Serbia Ovcar-Kablar gorge
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Serbia Kopaonik
Serbia Prokletije
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Vihorlat
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Burda
Serbia Sara mountain
Serbia Pcinja
Serbia Vlasina
Serbia Jerma
Serbia Suva mountain
Serbia Stara mountains
Serbia Sicevo gorge
Serbia Derdap gorge
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Special Ornithological Reserve on Krk island
Croatia Special Ornithological Reserves on Cres island
Croatia Prvic island
Croatia Mount Velebit
Croatia Kornati National Park and Telascica Nature Park
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia Cetina River
Croatia Mt Dinara
Yemen Bab al-Mandab - Mawza
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Russia (European) Vicinity of Dakhovka
Russia (European) Zilairskoye Prisakmar'ye
Russia (European) Shaitan-Tau ridge
Russia (European) Tazlarovskiye hills
Russia (European) Mountain valley of Zilim river
Russia (European) Orota depression
Belarus Polesie Reserve
Belarus Chavanščyna
Belarus Čyrvonaje
Belarus L'va floodplain
Belarus Pcič floodplain
Belarus Vieluta
Belarus Vydryca
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Janka river floodplain
Belarus Balota Maročna
Belarus Cikiny astravy
Belarus Staraja Vic'
Belarus Dražbitka-Svina
Belarus Stary Žadzien
Russia (European) Yuzhskoe lake-land
Latvia Adazi
Latvia Kemeri national park
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Maritsa-Parvomay
Bulgaria Vasilyovska Mountain
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Zemen Gordge
Bulgaria Ivailovgrad Reservoir
Bulgaria Persenk
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Palestine Ein Qinia
Ukraine Buzhok river valley (Anastavtsi)
Ukraine National Park Stara Guta
Ukraine Vodorazdil'ni i Zovnishni Gorgany
Ukraine Voloshans'ka dacha
Ukraine Komisarovskyj Forest
Ukraine Elanetskyj step Reserve
Ukraine Desna river part of National Nature Park "Desnyans'ko-Staroguts'kyj"
Italy Albegna river valley
Italy Lake Bracciano and Tolfa hills
Italy Pollino and Orsomarso
Latvia Pape
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Portugal Gerês mountains
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Spain Jerez de los Caballeros dehesas
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains
Portugal Serra de Monchique
Jordan Hisma Basin - Rum
Armenia Meghri
France Pointe de Grave
France Rive Gauche de la Vallée d'Aspe et Pic d'Anie
France Pènes du Moulle de Jaut
France Domaine d'Orx
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etang du Bagnas
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Plateaux agricoles des environs de Frencq
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Cirque de Gavarnie
France Plaine des Maures
France Vallée de la Charente et de la Seugne (Cabariot-Pons/St-Sever-de-Saintonge)
France Plaine de Niort (sud-est)
France Plateau de Bellefonds
France Plaines de Mirebeau et de Neuville-du-Poitou
France Marais et estuaire de la Seudre
France Plaine de Saint-Jean-de-Sauves
France La Dombes
France Basse Ardêche
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
France Les Bauges
North Macedonia Tikvesh Region
North Macedonia Mariovo
North Macedonia Boshavija
North Macedonia River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Jordan Dana
North Macedonia Gradsko-Rosoman-Negotino
Saudi Arabia Hawtat Bani Tamim
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Devetashko Plateau
Bulgaria Rupite
Kazakhstan Cherdoyak
Turkmenistan Koytendag
Turkmenistan Sumbar
Turkmenistan Dushakerekdag
Kazakhstan Mugodzhary
Turkmenistan Gurykhovudan
Turkmenistan Kurtusuv - Khovudan
Portugal Arraiolos
Portugal Serra do Caldeirão
Portugal Luzianes
Portugal Portas de Ródão e Vale Mourão
Kazakhstan Aktau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Western cliff faces of the Ustyurt Plateau
Turkmenistan Ersarybaba - Akkyr
Portugal Cabeção
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs
Russia (European) Archedinskiye sands
Russia (European) Golubinskiye Sands
Russia (European) Shakinski oak forest
Kazakhstan Kaundy Depression
Kazakhstan Basgurly-Zhazgurly Depression
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Lebanon Yammouneh Nature Reserve
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Ayak-Bestau Hills
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Sarysu River
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Italy Ticino river
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes
Russia (European) Sources of Kuma river
Russia (European) Marinskaya cuesta of Skalisti ridge
Russia (European) Malka river ravine
Poland Cedynia Site
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Solokija River Valley
Poland Upper Labunka River Valley
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Turkmenistan Kurendag - Garagoz
Turkmenistan Tejen
Italy Val d'Ossola
Kazakhstan Kenshektau Mountains
Lebanon Lake Qaraoun
Slovenia Vipavski rob
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley
Poland Solska Forest
Lebanon Qadisha Valley
Italy Alpi Apuane
Italy Dolomiti di Pietrapertosa
Italy Manferrara forest
North Macedonia Pelagonia
North Macedonia Taor Gorge
North Macedonia River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka
North Macedonia Lake Tikvesh
Russia (European) Ust'-Medveditskaya area
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
Romania Caraş gorge - Semenic Mountains
Romania Nerei gorge - Beuşniţa
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Romania Babadag wood
Romania Stepa Casimcea
Saudi Arabia Raydah escarpment
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Lebanon Beirut River Valley
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve
Poland Bielawa Swamps
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Kazakhstan Arys-Karaktau State Reserved Zone
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Poland Slonne Mountains
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Poland Sieniawa Forest
Poland Sandomierz Forest
North Macedonia Osogovo Mountains
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake
Kazakhstan Zheltoranga
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia Škocjan Bay
Kazakhstan Upper Charyn
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Kazakhstan Manyrak Mountains
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Belarus Braslav lakes
Spain Campo Charro y Tierras de Ledesma
Djibouti Kadda Guéïni - Doumêra
Egypt Suez
Yemen Al-Kadan area
Egypt Ain Sukhna
Egypt Ras Mohammed National Park
Egypt Gebel El Zeit
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Lebanon Hima Anjar - Kfar Zabad
Syria Jabal al-Shuah
Russia (European) Utrish Reserve and adjacent coastal waters
Serbia Golija
Serbia Pester
Serbia Vršačke Planine
Croatia Middle Dalmatian Islands and Peljesac Penninsula
Croatia Kvarner Islands
Croatia Gorski Kotar and Northern Lika
Serbia Fruska gora
Morocco Jbel Moussa
Greece River Axios
Greece Mount Peristeri
Greece Ioannina city
Greece Mount Chelmos (Aroania)
Greece Mount Oiti
Greece Mount Kyllini (Ziria)
Greece Mount Parnitha
Greece Antikythira island and surrounding islets
Greece Northern Chios
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains
Kazakhstan Arkaly Mountains
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Turkmenistan Garashor
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh
Turkmenistan Akjagaya
Turkmenistan Garachop
Turkmenistan Repetek
Turkmenistan Uzboy
Serbia Gornji Visok and Vidlic
Serbia Negotinska krajina
Serbia Zlatibor

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Desert Hot suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Grassland Temperate major resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Circaetus gallicus. Downloaded from on 04/02/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 04/02/2023.