LC
Short-toed Snake-eagle Circaetus gallicus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Clark, W. S. 1999. Plumage differences and taxonomic status of three similar Circaetus snake-eagles. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 119: 56-59.
Clark, W. S. 1999. Plumage differences and taxonomic status of three similar Circaetus snake-eagles. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 119: 56-59.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2006 Least Concern
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 71,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 48,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000-200000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.9 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 17,600-20,900 breeding pairs, equating to 35,100-41,800 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 34% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 103,000-123,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. It is placed in the band 100,000 to 200,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population is considered Stable (BirdLife International 2015). However declines have been reported in West Africa (Thiollay 2007).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Benin N Extant
Bhutan V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Cambodia V Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Czech Republic N Extant
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany V Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos V Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho V Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Malaysia V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta V Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia V Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands V Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone V Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sudan N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Armenia Meghri
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake
Bulgaria Devetashko Plateau
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Bulgaria Lomovete
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Rupite
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Strandzha
Croatia Gorski Kotar and Northern Lika
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia Kvarner Islands
Croatia Middle Dalmatian Islands and Peljesac Penninsula
Croatia Mount Velebit
Hungary Aggtelek Karst
Hungary Bükk
Hungary Gerecse
Hungary Mátra
Hungary Zemplén Mountains
North Macedonia Demir Kapija Gorge
North Macedonia Lake Tikvesh
North Macedonia Mariovo
North Macedonia River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka
North Macedonia River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica
Palestinian Authority Territories Ein Qinia
Portugal Arraiolos
Portugal Cabeção
Portugal Gerês mountains
Portugal Luzianes
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos
Portugal Portas de Ródão e Vale Mourão
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs
Portugal Serra de Monchique
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Serra do Caldeirão
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei
Romania Babadag wood
Romania Caraş gorge - Semenic Mountains
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Romania Domogled - Cernei valley
Romania Hagieni forest
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Romania Nerei gorge - Beuşniţa
Romania Stepa Casimcea
Russia (European) Archedinskiye sands
Russia (European) Utrish Reserve and adjacent coastal waters
Serbia Golija
Serbia Kopaonik
Serbia Sara mountain
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Vihorlat
Slovenia Karst
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley
Slovenia Vipavski rob
Spain Alcubierre and Sigena mountain ranges
Spain Alt Pallars
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Burete, Cambrón and Espuña mountain ranges
Spain Campo Charro y Tierras de Ledesma
Spain Campo de Argañán
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges
Spain Enguera mountain range-La Canal de Navarrés
Spain Fuentes Carrionas
Spain Gistreo and Coto mountain ranges
Spain Guara mountain range
Spain Izki mountains
Spain La Cabrera mountain range
Spain La Demanda mountains
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Lower course of the river Matarraña-Ribarroja
Spain María mountain range-Los Vélez
Spain Monfragüe
Spain Montes Aquilanos range
Spain Moratalla mountain range
Spain Mountains of Barcelona
Spain Pass of Beceite-Turmell mountain
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges
Spain Prelittoral mountain ranges of Granada
Spain Rivers Cabriel and Júcar canyons
Spain San Mauricio-Bohí-Beret
Spain Sierra de Aracena
Spain Sierra Morena de Sevilla
Spain Sierra Pelada mountain range
Spain Tietar valley
Spain Torrecilla and Gigante mountain ranges
Spain Turia canyon and Los Serranos
Spain Urbión and Cebollera Mountain Ranges
Spain Valdegovía-Arcena mountain range

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Desert Hot suitable non-breeding
Desert Hot suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Grassland Temperate major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Savanna Dry suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Circaetus gallicus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/06/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/06/2019.