Shoebill Balaeniceps rex


Baker, N. E. 1996. Tanzania waterbird count - January 1995: the first coordinated count of the major wetlands of Tanzania.

Briggs, P. 2007. Top billing: Shoebill. Africa - Birds & Birding 12(1): 50-54.

Collar, N. J.; Stuart, S. N. 1985. Threatened birds of Africa and related islands: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, and International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Dinesen, L.; Baker, M. 2006. Status of Shoebill Balaeniceps rex in Malagarasi, Tanzania. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 13: 37-44.

Dodman, T. 2013. International Single Species Action Plan for the Conservation of the Shoebill Balaeniceps rex. Bonn, Germany.

Fay, M.; Elkan, P.; Marjan, M.; Grossmann, F. 2007. Aerial Surveys of Wildlife, Livestock, and Human Activity in and around Existing and Proposed Protected Areas of Southern Sudan, Dry Season 2007. In: Wildlife Conservation Society (ed.), Southern Sudan Technical Report.

Guillet, A. 1978. Distribution and conservation of the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex) in the southern Sudan. Biological Conservation 13: 39-49.

Guillet, A. 1979. Aspects of the foraging behaviour of the shoebill. Ostrich 50: 252-255.

Hancock, J. A.; Kushlan, J. A.; Kahl, M. P. 1992. Storks, ibises and spoonbills of the world. Academic Press, London.

Howell, P.; Lock, M.; Cobb, S. 1988. The Jonglei Canal: impact and opportunity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

John, J. R. M.; Nahonyo C. L.; Lee, W. S.; Msuya, C. A. 2012. Observations on nesting of shoebill Balaeniceps rex and wattled crane Bugeranus carunculatus in Malagarasi wetlands, western Tanzania. Afr. J. Ecol. 51: 184-187.

Mullers R.H.E.; Amar A. 2015a. Shoebill Balaeniceps rex foraging behaviour in the Bangweulu Wetlands, Zambia. Ostrich 81: 113-118.

Mullers R.H.E.; Amar A. 2015b. Parental nesting behavior, chick growth and breeding success of Shoebills (Balaeniceps rex) in the Bangweulu Wetlands, Zambia. Waterbirds 38: 1-9.

Mullers, R. H. E. 2014. Management Plan 2015-2019. Conservation of Shoebills (Balaeniceps rex) in the Bangweulu Wetlands, Zambia. Bangweulu Wetlands Management Board, Lusaka, Zambia.

Ngwenyama, D. 2012. Raising Bwalya: challenges of Shoebill conservation in Bangweulu Swamps. Birdwatch Zambia 42(9): 9-10.

Nikolaus, G. 1987. Distribution atlas of Sudan's birds with notes on habitat and status. Zoologischesforschungs Institut und Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn.

Renson, G. 1998. Observations sur la reproduction du Bec-en-sabot Balaeniceps rex en Zambie de 1992 à 1997. Alauda 66: 81-96.

Rose, P.M.; Scott, D.A. 1997. Waterfowl population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Roxburgh, L.; Buchanan, G. M. 2010. Revising estimates of the Shoebill (Balaeniceps rex) population size in the Bangweulu Swamp, Zambia, through a combination of aerial surveys and habitat suitability modelling. Ostrich 81(1): 25-30.

Roxburgh, L.; Stjernstedt, B.; Mwizabi, D.; Droppelmann, K. 2006. Technical report: Shoebill survey in Bangweulu Swamps, Zambia under the Wetlands International AEWA/BUWAL IWC 2006.

Wetlands International. 2002. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Stork, Ibis and Spoonbill Specialist Group

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Balaeniceps rex. Downloaded from on 30/05/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 30/05/2023.