Serra do Mar Tyrannulet Phylloscartes difficilis


Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Şekercioğlu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261.

Global Forest Watch. 2016. Interactive Forest Change Mapping Tool. Available at:,forestgain?tab=countries-tab&begin=2001-01-01&end=2015-01-01&threshold=30. (Accessed: 2016).

IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: (Accessed: 10 December 2020).

Parker, T.A., Stotz, D.F. and Fitzpatrick, J.W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F., Fitzpatrick, J.W., Parker, T.A. and Moskovits, D.K. (eds), Neotropical bird ecology and conservation, pp. 113-436. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Ridgely, R.S.; Tudor, G. 1994. The Birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.

Thiollay, J. M. 1986. Structure comparee du peuplement avien dans trois sites de foret primaire en Guyane. Revue d'Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie) 41: 59-105.

Tracewski, L.; Butchart, S.H.M.; Di Marco, M.; Ficetola, G.F.; Rondinini, C.; Symes, A.; Wheatley, H.; Beresford, A.E. and Buchanan, G.M. 2016. Toward quantification of the impact of 21st-century deforestation on the extinction risk of terrestrial vertebrates. Conservation Biology 30(5): 1070-1079.

WikiAves. 2018. Estalinho. Available at: (Accessed: 23 March 2020).

Further resources

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Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Phylloscartes difficilis. Downloaded from on 23/04/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 23/04/2021.