LC
Serra do Mar Tyrannulet Phylloscartes difficilis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Least Concern
2016 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2012 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2008 Near Threatened A2c; A3c; A4c
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 288,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 20000-49999 poor suspected 2020
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-9 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-9 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-5 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -

Population justification: No survey data is available. The species has been described as infrequent and difficult to see (R. Amorin in litt. 2020). Based on the recorded population density of a congener (Phylloscartes virescens: 1.14 individuals per km2; Thiollay 1986), the area of tree cover with over 30% canopy cover within the range in 2010 (94,000 km2; Global Forest Watch 2020) and assuming that only 40-60% of forest within the species's range is occupied, the population size is tentatively suspected to be in the range of 42,864-64,296 individuals, roughly equating to 28,576-42,864 mature individuals. The population size is here placed in the band 20,000-49,999 mature individuals. The species has a disjunct distribution, so is likely to have more than one subpopulation.

Trend justification: Approximately 4% of tree cover was lost between 2009 and 2019 within the species's range (Global Forest Watch 2020). A continuing decline in population size is inferred. The population size is suspected to have declined by 1-9% over the past ten years.

Over three years from 2017-2019, approximately 1.6% of tree cover within the species's range was lost over three years (Global Forest Watch 2020). If this rate were to continue across ten years, this would equate to a loss of 5% of tree cover. Hence, over the next ten years, the population size is suspected to undergo a reduction of 1-9%.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brazil N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Brazil Encostas da Região de Domingos Martins
Brazil Parque Nacional do Caparaó
Brazil Serra dos Órgãos
Brazil Serra do Tinguá
Brazil Serra do Marumbi
Brazil Serra da Mantiqueira
Brazil São Francisco Xavier / Monte Verde
Brazil Região de Blumenau
Brazil Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (entre Santos e São Sebastião)
Brazil Serra do Tabuleiro State Park
Brazil Parque Nacional de São Joaquim
Brazil Parque Nacional de Itatiaia
Brazil Serra da Bocaina / Paraty / Angra dos Reis
Brazil Região dos Aparados da Serra

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 950 - 2150 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Phylloscartes difficilis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2021.