NT
Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2bcd
2012 Near Threatened A2bcd
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 9,670,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 21,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2006
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.4 - - -

Population justification: The population was formerly estimated at 3.5 million individuals, but this was revised downwards to 2.2 million individuals in 2006 (Morrison et al. 2006, A. Lesterhuis in litt. 2009, Andres et al. 2012), assuming annual declines of 5% in 75% of the North American population.

Trend justification: This species is conservatively estimated to have declined at a rate approaching 30% over three generations (22 years). Determining the exact population trajectory is very difficult, but aerial surveys along the coasts of Suriname, French Guiana and Guyana (which may support c.85% of the population wintering on the coast of South America) suggest that the non-breeding population may have declined by c.79% between the early 1980s and 2008 (Morrison et al. 2012), while data from the Bay of Fundy show a 68% decline during southbound migration between 1982 and 2005, with the greatest reductions taking place since the mid 1990s.  Preliminary results from surveys off the Brazilian coast (Belem to Baia de Sanadi) in 2011 suggest that declines have also taken place here since 1982, making it unlikely that a southward shift in wintering range accounts for the declines in Suriname and French Guiana (D. Mizrahi in litt. 2011). Long-term population trend indices also suggest that Semipalmated Sandpiper has declined significantly since the 1980s, especially populations migrating along the Atlantic Coast en route to eastern Canadian breeding areas (Mizrahi et al. 2012). Analyses of population trends with migration monitoring data from eastern and central North America for the 35-year period from 1974 to 2009 found trends that were generally negative, but not statistically significant, with counts that decreased between 1985 and 1999, then recovered at least partially through the 2000s (Gratto-Trevor et. al. 2012). However, data from the breeding range suggests that the species was generally increasing or stable in the western and central portions of the range and had an uncertain status in the east (Smith et al. 2012), making the overall picture difficult to determine.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania V Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant Yes
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant Yes Yes
Argentina N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant Yes
Barbados N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes Yes
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti V Extant
Dominica N Extant Yes
Dominican Republic N Extant Yes Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
El Salvador N Extant Yes Yes
France V Extant
French Guiana N Extant Yes Yes
Germany V Extant
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Grenada N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Guatemala N Extant Yes
Guyana N Extant Yes Yes
Haiti N Extant Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
Ireland V Extant
Israel V Extant Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Mauritania V Extant
Mexico N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant
Netherlands V Extant
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant Yes Yes
Paraguay N Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant Yes
St Lucia N Extant Yes
St Martin (to France) N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant Yes
Suriname N Extant Yes Yes
Sweden V Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant Yes Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes Yes
Venezuela N Extant Yes Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Venezuela Humedales Boca del Río Unare
Puerto Rico (to USA) Vaqueria
Bahamas Great Inagua
Bahamas Grog Pond
Canada Sullivan Lake
Canada Beaverhill Lake
Canada Gooseberry Lake
Canada Metiskow and Sunken Lakes
Canada Churchill and Vicinity
Canada Nelson River Estuary and Marsh Point
Canada Shepody Bay West
Canada Saint's Rest Marsh and Beach
Canada Quaco Bay
Canada Dorchester Cape and Grand Anse
Canada Upper Cumberland Basin
Canada Eastern Cape Sable Island
Canada Cobequid Bay
Canada Southern Bight, Minas Basin
Canada Rasmussen Lowlands
Canada Foxe Basin Islands
Canada Twin Islands
Canada Akimiski Island
Canada Aylmer Wildlife Management Area
Canada Longridge Point and Associated Coastline
Canada Ekwan to Lakitusaki Shores
Canada North Point
Canada Lagune du Havre aux Basques et plage de l'Ouest
Canada Île de l'Est
Canada Baie de Gaspé
Canada Barre de Portneuf
Canada Île Rouge
Canada Batture Batture aux Alouettes and mouth of Saguenay River
Canada Battures aux Loups Marins
Canada Montmagny
Canada Battures de Beauport and chenal de l'île d'Orléans
Canada Northeast James Bay Coast
Canada Last Mountain Lake National Wildlife Area
Canada Quill Lakes
Canada Old Wives-Frederick Lakes
Canada Chaplin Lake
Canada Reed Lake
Canada Buffer Lake
Canada Nunaluk Spit to Herschel Island
Canada Babbage and Spring River Deltas
Canada M'Clintock Bay to Lewes River Marsh
St Vincent and the Grenadines Ashton Wetland
St Vincent and the Grenadines Mustique Island
Bahamas Gilliam Bay
Bahamas Grand Bahama Southern Shore
Bahamas Low Cay, High Cay and Sandy Hook
Bahamas Cat Island Wetlands
Panama Upper Bay of Panamá
Panama Chorrera Bay
Panama Parita Bay
Panama Chimán Wetlands
Aruba (to Netherlands) Tierra del Sol Salina
Antigua and Barbuda McKinnons Salt Pond
Antigua and Barbuda Valley Church Bay
Antigua and Barbuda Christian Cove
Puerto Rico (to USA) Jobos Bay
Bahamas Mangrove Cay
Puerto Rico (to USA) Suroeste
Paraguay Lagunas Saladas - Riacho Yacaré
St Lucia Point Sables
Anguilla (to UK) Dog Island
Virgin Islands (to USA) Great Pond
Virgin Islands (to USA) Southgate and Green Cay
Anguilla (to UK) Cove Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Long Salt Pond
Cayman Islands (to UK) Central Mangrove Wetland
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays
Brazil Baixada Maranhense
Bahamas Red Bays
Bahamas Conception Island National Park
Suriname Bigi Pan
Suriname Northern Commewijne/ Marowijne
Suriname Northern Coronie
Suriname Northern Saramacca
French Guiana Amana
French Guiana Littoral
French Guiana Littoral Sinnamary
French Guiana Littoral Kourou
French Guiana Littoral Macouria
French Guiana Ile de Cayenne
French Guiana Plaine Kaw et Pointe Béhague
Trinidad and Tobago West Coast Mudflats
USA Teshekpuk Lake-E. Dease Inlet
Brazil Reentrâncias Maranhenses / Paraenses
St Kitts and Nevis Ponds of the Southeast Peninsula
Bahamas Joulter Cays
Dominican Republic Jaragua National Park
Brazil Mangue Seco
Brazil Caxiuanã / Portel
Brazil Delta do Parnaíba
Ecuador Zona intermareal del Sur del Golfo de Guayaquil

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Inland Deltas suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Competition
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Calidris pusilla. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/12/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/12/2020.