Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 17,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 44,800,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.2 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.150,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant Yes
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant Yes
Argentina N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant Yes
Barbados N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bolivia N Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant Yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Dominica N Extant Yes
Dominican Republic N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
El Salvador N Extant Yes
French Guiana N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Grenada N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant Yes
Guyana N Extant Yes
Haiti N Extant Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant Yes
Paraguay V Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant Yes
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant Yes
St Lucia N Extant Yes
St Martin (to France) N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant Yes
Suriname N Extant Yes
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) V Extant
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Venezuela N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Colombia Complejo de Humedales Costeros de la Guajira
Colombia Ciénaga Grande, Isla de Salamanca and Sabana Grande RAMSAR biosphere reserve
Colombia Reserva de Biósfera Seaflower
Ecuador Archipiélago de Jambelí
Venezuela Humedales Boca del Río Unare
Jamaica Yallahs
Puerto Rico (to USA) Vaqueria
Bahamas Grog Pond
Canada Metiskow and Sunken Lakes
Canada Churchill and Vicinity
Canada Kaskattama River Mouth
Canada Shepody Bay West
Canada Grand Manan Archipelago
Canada Point Lepreau/Maces Bay
Canada Saint's Rest Marsh and Beach
Canada Quaco Bay
Canada Dorchester Cape and Grand Anse
Canada Cobequid Bay
Canada Southern Bight, Minas Basin
Canada South Shore - East Queens Co. Sector
Canada Twin Islands
Canada Aylmer Wildlife Management Area
Canada PEI National Park
Canada Lagune du Havre aux Basques et plage de l'Ouest
Canada Îlot C
Canada Barachois de Malbaie
Canada Marais de Pointe-au-Père
Canada Marais de la baie de L'Isle-Verte
Canada Marais de Gros-Cacouna
Canada Barre de Portneuf
Canada Baie des Escoumins et Grandes-Bergeronnes
Canada Marais de Saint-Fulgence
Canada Battures aux Loups Marins
Canada Northeast James Bay Coast
Canada McIntyre Beach and Rose Spit
St Vincent and the Grenadines Ashton Wetland
St Vincent and the Grenadines Mustique Island
Bahamas Grand Bahama Southern Shore
Bahamas Gilliam Bay
Bahamas Low Cay, High Cay and Sandy Hook
Bahamas South Beach Tidal Flats
Bahamas Cat Island Wetlands
Panama Upper Bay of Panamá
Antigua and Barbuda McKinnons Salt Pond
Antigua and Barbuda Potworks Dam
Antigua and Barbuda Bethesda Dam
Costa Rica Nicoya Gulf mangroves and coastal areas
Puerto Rico (to USA) Jobos Bay
Puerto Rico (to USA) Suroeste
Anguilla (to UK) Dog Island
Anguilla (to UK) Scrub Island
Virgin Islands (to USA) Great Pond
Virgin Islands (to USA) Southgate and Green Cay
Anguilla (to UK) Cove Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Long Salt Pond
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays
Bahamas Red Bays
Jamaica Black River Great Morass
Bahamas Conception Island National Park
Suriname Bigi Pan
Mexico Ría Lagartos
Suriname Northern Commewijne/ Marowijne
Suriname Northern Coronie
Suriname Northern Saramacca
French Guiana Amana
French Guiana Littoral
French Guiana Littoral Sinnamary
French Guiana Littoral Kourou
French Guiana Littoral Macouria
French Guiana Ile de Cayenne
French Guiana Plaine Kaw et Pointe Béhague
Trinidad and Tobago West Coast Mudflats
USA Cumberland Island National Seashore
Mexico Istmo de Tehuantepec - Mar Muerto
Bahamas Kemp Cay to Pigeon Cay
Bahamas Joulter Cays
Mexico Ensenada de la Paz
Mexico Istmo de Tehuantepec
Mexico Marismas Nacionales
Brazil Mangue Seco
Brazil Reentrâncias Maranhenses / Paraenses
Brazil Caxiuanã / Portel
Brazil Baixada Maranhense
Brazil Delta do Parnaíba
Ecuador Zona intermareal del Sur del Golfo de Guayaquil
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Macuira

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Charadrius semipalmatus. Downloaded from on 26/03/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/03/2023.